Dictionary of Southern Appalachian English

Annotated Bibliography: Southern and Central Appalachian English

Note to the Reader: The following bibliography identifies and briefly summarizes the content of more than five hundred articles, chapters, and books written on the English of southern and central Appalachia.  The emphasis is on academic and research-based publications, but popular ones are also included, especially those dealing with vocabulary and names.  

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Adams, Frazier B. 1970. “Colloquial Speech Forms.” Appalachia Revisited: How People Lived Fifty Years Ago, pp. 47-49. Ashland, Ky.: Economy. Brief presentation of archaisms. Review: C. S. Guthrie. 1970. Kentucky Folklore Record 16.81.

Adams, Henry J. 1976. “Speech Patterns.” Tennessee Folklore Society Bulletin 41.70-71. 104 figures of speech from Georgia, Alabama, Tennessee, and Kentucky.

Alderman, Pat. 1972. “Mountain Hollerin.” In the Shadow of Big Bald: About the Appalachians and Their People, p. 64. Jonesboro, Tenn.: Tri-Cities Press.

Allen, Edward A. 1899. “You-uns.” Nation 68.476 (June 22). Cites use of term in Tyndale’s New Testament translation (1525) and reports we-dem and you-dem in Lancaster County, Virginia.

Anderson, Bridget. 1997. “Adaptive Sociophonetic Strategies and Dialect Accommodation: /ay/ Monophthongization in Cherokee English.” University of Pennsylvania Working Papers in Linguistics 4.185-201. Revised as Anderson 1999 below.

Anderson, Bridget. 1998. “An Acoustic Study of Phonological Transfer and Vowel Accommodation among the Snowbird Cherokee.” Raleigh: North Carolina State University M.A. thesis.

Anderson, Bridget. 1999. “Source-Language Transfer and Vowel Accommodation in the Patterning of Cherokee English /ai/ and /oi/.” American Speech 74.339-68. [Western North Carolina]. Through acoustic analysis shows that Cherokee speakers of English, whether monolingual or bilingual, accommodate to the local Anglo pronunciation of /ay/ and /oy/ only in environments permitted by the phonology of Cherokee.

Anderson, Bridget. 2003. “An Acoustic Study of Southeastern Michigan Appalachian and African American Migrant Vowel Systems.” Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Ph.D. dissertation. Abstract in Dissertation Abstracts International 64.3266A. Quantifies fronting of high and lower-high back vowels and glide weakening of /ay/ for six Appalachian white and six African American women in Detroit; finds shifting vowel patterns in both groups are socially mediated and infused with local language ideology and do not correlate with traditional social categories.

Anderson, Bridget. 2006. “Appalachian English in the Urban North.” Encyclopedia of Appalachia, ed. by Rudy Abramson and Jean Haskell, 1011-12. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press.

Anonymous. 1957. “Buncombe—Talking to Buncombe.” North Carolina Folklore 5.2.23. Origin of the North Carolina county’s name.

Anonymous. 1967. “Place Name Origins.” Foxfire 1.62-72.

“An Appalachian Relic: Notes on ‘Swarp’.” 1981. Appalachian Journal 8.203-05. Unsigned document found in Knott County, Kentucky, Public Library that recounts improbable accounts of word’s usage.

Armstrong, Mary Sheila. 1952. “A Lexical Study of the Vocabulary of Harriette Arnow’s Regional Novel Hunter’s Horn.” Charlottesville: University of Virginia M.A. thesis. 71 pp. Study of pp. 1-150 of novel to discover how well standard dictionaries record regional language; classifies material into six lists of 200 terms and senses not recorded in them.

Armstrong, Mary Sheila. l953. “Survivals in Kentucky.” American Speech 28.306-07. Reports compound adjectives like disgraceful indecent in novel by Kentuckian Harriet Arnow that are similar to Shakespearian usages.

Arnow, Harriet Simpson. 1963. “The Sounds of Humankind.” Flowering of the Cumberland, pp. 121-55. New York: Macmillan. [Kentucky]. Descriptive essay by novelist on range of language and verbal activity in Cumberland Mountains.

Ashby, Rickie Zayne. 1976. “Philosophical and Religious Language in Early Kentucky Wills.” Kentucky Folklore Record 22.2.39-44. Typical religious phrases used in 18th- and early 19th-century Kentucky wills.

Atherton, H. E., and Darrell L. Gregg. 1929. “A Study of Dialect Differences.” American Speech 4.216-23. [North Carolina]. Early acoustic comparison of phonograph recordings of speakers from North Carolina and South England, analyzing length of words in millimeters of film per second, frequency of double vibrations, and pitch level.

Atwood, E. Bagby. 1950. “Grease and Greasy: A Study of Geographical Variation.” University of Texas Studies in English 29.249-60. Analyzes distribution of [s] and [z] pronunciations in New England and Atlantic states and finds [z] pronunciations dominate from Western Pennsylvania southward. Reprinted in H. B. Allen. 1958. Readings in Applied English Linguistics. 1st ed., 158-67; 1964. 2nd ed., 242- 51; Bobbs-Merrill Reprint Series, Language-2.

Atwood, E. Bagby. l953. A Survey of Verb Forms in the Eastern United States. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. [Maine to northeast Florida]. Using records from Linguistic Atlas of New England and Linguistic Atlas of the Middle and South Atlantic States, details regional patterns in eighty-eight verb features, including principal parts, subject-verb agreement, negative constructions, infinitives, and modals.

Axley, Lowry. 1927. “‘You All’ and ‘We All’ Again.” American Speech 2.343-45. Comments on use of you’uns and you all; says in lifetime of experience he has “never heard any person of any degree of education or station of life use the expression you all” as singular.

Axley, Lowry. 1928. “West Virginia Dialect.” American Speech 3.456. Notes many items in 1927 Carey Woofter article as West Virginia terms that he finds in Savannah, Georgia.

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Bailey, Charles-James N. 1968. “Is There a ‘Midland’ Dialect of American English?” Eric Document 021 240. 7 pp. Objects to term “South Midland” as used by Linguistic Atlas writers and claims preponderance of phonological and grammatical evidence groups region encompassing most of South Carolina with the South rather than with the “North Midland.”

Bailey, Guy. 1979. “Folk Speech on the Cumberland Plateau: A Phonological Analysis.” Knoxville: University of Tennessee Ph.D. dissertation. Abstract in Dissertation Abstracts International 40.5031A. [older, less-educated whites, East Tennessee]. Outlines segmental phonemic structure of speech of area, describing phonological processes and offering phonetic, contextual, and historial explanations for variants.

Bailey, Joan Smith. 1971. “Southern Appalachian Non-Standard Speech in Conflict with the Standard English of the Classroom.” Johnson City: East Tennessee State University M.A. thesis. 50 pp. [65 high school students, 59 males, 6 females, with composition problems, East Tennessee]. Explores ways to improve attitudes of failure-prone speakers of Appalachian English toward their language.

Bailey, Lucille M. 1996. “The Persistence of /mIzrIs/ among Younger Speakers in Kentucky.” SECOL Review 20.54-63. Shows that younger speakers continue to use the two-syllable pronunciation of Mrs.

Baker, Howard F. 1927. “West Virginia Dialect.” American Speech 3.68. Says 210 of terms cited in 1927 by Carey Woofter are unfamiliar to the author in Maryland and questions how many of them are localisms; suggests that Woofter’s word-list be supplemented by other West Virginians.

Ball, Donald B. 1978. “Notes on the Slang and Folk Speech of Knoxville, Knox County, Tennessee.” Tennessee Folklore Society Bulletin 44.134-42. Seventy items collected in 1974-75.

Beckner, Walton Thomas. 1995. “Pulling Time in Appalachia: A Comparative Study of Prison Argot.” Knoxville; University of Tennessee Ph.D. dissertation. Abstract in Dissertation Abstracts International 56.531A-532A. [Kentucky, North Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia, 26 speakers]. Collects 1216 terms of prison argot and groups them according to semantic fields, showing how they reflect central characteristics of prison life; examines terms both unique to one state and shared by all four, concluding that there is sufficient evidence for a “regionalized prison argot.”

Benson, Erica J. 2003. “Folk Linguistic Perceptions and the Mapping of Dialect Boundaries” American Speech 78.307-330. [12 speakers from four different parts of Ohio]. Finds that natives of central and northwest Ohio tend to stigmatize the speech of the southeastern part of the state and to associate it with West Virginia and Kentucky, whild speakers from southeastern Ohio tend to perceive everyone in the state as speaking the same variety of English.

Berk, Laura E., and Ruth A. Garvin. 1984. “Development of Private Speech among Low-Income Appalachian Children.” Developmental Psychology 20.271-86. [36 children ages 5-10, Eastern Kentucky]. “Private speech” is defined as that spoken aloud for self-guidance, which is held to be crucial for intellectual development.

Berrey, Lester V. 1940. “Southern Mountain Dialect.” American Speech 15.45-54. General survey of Appalachian phonology, morphology, and syntax; discusses dialect subregions.

Berry, Pearlleen D., and Mary Eva Repass, compilers. n.d. Granpa Says ... Superstitions and Sayings from Eastern Kentucky, pp. 18-22. Fredericksburg, Va.: Foxhound Enterprises. Cites sayings and idioms.

Betts, Leonidas, and Richard Walser. 1974. “Folk Speech.” Gateway to North Carolina Folklore, p. 7. Raleigh: North Carolina State University Press.

Beverley, Robert. 1991. “A Few Examples of the Old Mountain Idiom.” The Western North Carolina Almanac and Book of Facts, pp. 146-47. Franklin, N.C.: Sanctuary Press.

Bewley, Irene. 1943. “Picturesque Speech.” Tennessee Folklore Society Bulletin 9.3.4.

Blair, Marion E. 1938. “The Prevalence of Older English Proverbs in Blount County, Tennessee.” Tennessee Folklore Society Bulletin 4.1-24. [34 natives, East Tennessee]. Investigates how many proverbs prevalent before 1500 are recognized by heterogeneous group of natives from Blount County, Tennessee.

Blair, Walter, and Raven I. McDavid, Jr. 1983. The Mirth of a Nation: America’s Great Dialect Humor. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. Anthology of 19th-century dialect fiction writers; includes “Linguistic Note” (pp. 279-83) by McDavid explaining editorial alteration of dialect to make stories more readable. Reviews: K. B. Harder. 1983. Tennessee Folklore Society Bulletin 49.47; R. Higgs. 1983. Appalachian Journal 10.379-85; M. Dunne. 1984. Southeastern Conference on Linguistics Review 8.74-75; L. Pederson. 1984. Journal of English Linguistics 17.97-102; R. B. Shulman. 1984. American Speech 59.365-67.

Blanton, Linda L. 1974. “The Verb System in Breathitt County, Kentucky: A Sociolinguistic Analysis.” Chicago: Illinois Institute of Technology Ph.D. dissertation. Abstract in Dissertation Abstracts International 35.7888-89A. [22 speakers, Eastern Kentucky]. Analyzes dialect patterns of subject-verb concord, auxiliary deletion, tense marking, and negation and finds all very frequent; concludes “that the verb system, as a whole, has undergone a great deal of morphological leveling.”

Blanton, Linda. 1985. “Southern Appalachia: Social Considerations of Speech.” Toward a Social History of American English, by J. L. Dillard, pp. 73-90. The Hague: Mouton. Argues for existence of identifiable dialect called Southern Appalachian English “on the basis of cultural solidarity, the boundaries of this dialect [being] more social, more cultural, than geographical”; also argues that the dialect is composed of two varieties—a standard and a nonstandard, both of which have features socially stigmatized by other speakers of American English.

Blanton, Linda. 1989. “Mountain English.” Encyclopedia of Southern Culture, ed. by Charles Reagan Wilson and William Ferris. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 777-78. Short essay discussing nature and major grammatical features of Southern Appalachian and Ozark speech.

Boiarsky, Carolyn. 1969. “Consistency of Spelling and Pronunciation Deviations in Appalachian Students.” Modern Language Journal 53.347-50. [high school students, West Virginia]. Studies “pronunciation of certain words by Appalachian students and analyzes the consistency betwen the Appalachian dialectal pronunciation of certain vowels and the spelling of words in which they appear”; identifies four “vowel shifts” in Appalachian speech, three dealing with pronunciation of front vowels before /l/.

Boiarsky, Carolyn. 1970. “Improving Oral Communication of Appalachian Youth through Rhyme.” Modern Language Journal 54.188-89. Discusses a model “from which Appalachian students can learn to differentiate between their dialectal pronunciation of certain vowels and pronunciation of those vowels in Standard American English” and reports on project using five pilot lessons, based on an aural-oral approach, to assist such students.

Bond, George Foot. 1939. “A Study of an Appalachian Dialect.” Gainesville: University of Florida M.A. thesis. 119 pp. [6 males, 2 females, ages 20s-90+, Broad River Valley, western North Carolina]. Surveys pronunciation and vocabulary.

Boshears, Frances, and Herbert Halpert. 1954. “Proverbial Comparisons from an East Tennessee County.” Tennessee Folklore Society Bulletin 20.27-41. [East Tennessee]. List of 1045 comparisons compiled in Scott County.
Boswell, George W. 1951. “An Abstract of Reciprocal Influences of Text and Tune in the Southern Traditional Ballad.” Nashville, Tenn.: George Peabody College doctoral dissertation.

Boswell, George W. 1971. “Class Competition in Kentucky Dialect Study.” Kentucky Folklore Record 17.48-52. [Northeastern Kentucky]. Discusses generational differences in familiarity with archaic terms, with particular reference to thirteen items; finds greatest difference between 15-25 and 25-50 age groups.

Boswell, George W. 1972. “Tongue Twisters and a Few Other Examples of Linguistic Folklore.” Kentucky Folklore Record 18.49-51. Three dozen folk expressions, mostly tongue twisters, from Mississippi and Kentucky.

Botkin, B. A. 1931. “Folk Speech in the Kentucky Mountain Cycle of Percy Mackaye.” American Speech 6.264-76. Account of metaphor, blending, functional change, compounding, folk etymology, and false analysis that occur in writing of the Kentucky author.

Bowman, Blanche S. 1940. “Study of a Dialect Employed by the People of the Kentucky Mountains and Presented through a Group of Original Short Stories.” Manhattan: Kansas State University M.A. thesis. 250 pp. Discussion of Eastern Kentucky speech by school-teacher who cites forms from fiction to exemplify local patterns.

Bowman, Elizabeth S. 1938. Land of High Horizons. Kingsport, Tenn.: Southern. Pp. 45-47, discusses general qualities of mountain speech.

Boykin, Carol. 1965. “Sut’s Speech: The Dialect of a ’Nat’ral Borned Mountaineer.” The Lovingood Papers 4.36-42. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press. Reviews arguments over authenticity and purposes of George Washington Harris’ portrayal of Sut Lovingood’s speech and analyzes Harris’ use of spelling to represent dialect pronunciation and Harris’ use of dialect grammar and local terms and figures of speech.

Boykin, Carol D. 1966. “A Study of the Phonology, Morphology, and Vocabulary of George Washington Harris’ Sut Lovingood Yarns.” Knoxville: University of Tennessee M.A. thesis. v + 71 pp. Thorough study of dialect patterns in Harris’ fiction; says Harris was “careful, accurate craftsman” in rendering East Tennessee dialect and indulged in eye dialect much less than his contemporaries.

Braden, Beulah Brummett. 1976. “The Way We Said Things.” When Grandma was a Girl, pp. 109-10. Oak Ridge, Tenn.: The Oak Ridger. List of 29 terms.

Bradley, William Aspenwall. 1915. “In Shakespeare’s America.” Harper’s 131.436-45. Antiquated speech and other relics from Kentucky, where “the purest English on earth” is spoken.

Brandes, Paul D., and Jeutonne Brewer. 1977. “Appalachian Amerenglish.” Dialect Clash in America: Issues and Answers, 251-311. Metuchen, N.J.: Scarecrow. Mainly for teachers, this chapter synopsizes settlement and cultural history of the region and gives a non-technical sketch of distinctive syntactic, phonological, lexical, and nonverbal communication patterns of Appalachian speakers. Extensive bibliography. Reviews: E. Jongsma. 1978. Reading Teacher 31.957-58; J. Ornstein. 1978. Modern Language Journal 62.441-42; J. C. Scott. 1978. Southern Speech Communication Journal 43.418-20; S. M. Tsuzaki. 1978. Quarterly Journal of Speech 64.353-54.
Bray, Rose Altizer. 1950. “Disappearing Dialect.” Antioch Review 10.279-88. Describes mountaineers’ English as Elizabethan; lists archaisms in phonology, morphology, syntax, and lexicon.

Brewer, Fisk P. 1873. “Peculiar Usages of English—Observed in North Carolina.” Nation 16.148-49. Comment from Chapel Hill on pronunciation and vocabulary.

Broaddus, James W. 1957. “The Folk Vocabulary of Estill County, Kentucky.” Lexington: University of Kentucky M.A. thesis. xx + 89 pp. [4 elderly, less-educated natives, Eastern Kentucky]. Compiles glossary of 2,000 items, but does not relate material to other localities or regions.

Broadrick, Estelle D. 1978. “Old Folk Sayings and Home-Cures.” Tennessee Folklore Society Bulletin 44.35-36. One dozen proverbial sayings.

Brown, Calvin S. 1889. “Dialectal Survivals in Tennessee.” Modern Language Journal 4.205-09. Same as American Notes and Queries 4.16-18 (Nov. 9, 1889) and 4.64-66 (Dec. 7, 1889). Thirty-nine forms found in Tennessee and in Uncle Remus stories that are identical to forms in Shakespeare.

Brown, Calvin S. 1891. “Other Dialectal Forms in Tennessee.” Publication of the Modern Language Association 6.171-75. Same as American Notes and Queries 8.49-50 (Dec. 5, 1891); 8.62-63 (Dec. 12, 1891); 8.75 (Dec. 19, 1891). Surveys phonological and lexical peculiarities of Tennessee speech and compares them to Shakespeare, Pope, and William Bartlett.

Brown, Calvin S. 1894. “Dialectal Survivals from Spenser.” Dial 16.40. Comments on nonstandard forms with long history.
Brown, Calvin S. 1897. “Dialectal Survivals from Chaucer.” Dial 22.139-41. Identifies analogs of modern-day nonstandard forms to ones founnd in Chaucer.

Bruce, J. D. 1913. “Terms from Tennessee.” Dialect Notes 4.58. [southeast Tennessee]. Thirteen terms.

Bruce, J. Douglas. 1913. “Terms from Tennesee.” Dialect Notes 4.58.

Burkette, Allison. 2002. “An Examination of Language Variation in a Small Blue Ridge Community.” Athens: University of Georgia Ph.D. dissertation. Abstract in Dissertation Absracts International 62.3025A-3026A. Uses social network theory to examine the speech of 13 members of a close-knit family network, but finds that network scores account for variation less than does such psychological factors as resistance and adaptation to change.

Burns, Inez. 1978. “Our Southern Mountaineers.” Smoky Mountain Historical Society Newsletter 4.2.10-13.

Burt, N. C. 1878. “The Dialects of Our Country.” Appleton’s Journal, new series 5.411-17. Survey of regional and local varieties of American English, with special reference to settlement history, and emphasis on pronunciation and vocabulary.

Butters, Ronald R. 1981. “Unstressed Vowels in Appalachian English.” American Speech 56.104-10. Discusses constraints on raising of final unstressed schwa in Appalachian speech and tries to unite interpretations of Wolfram and Christian’s Appalachian Speech and Kurath and McDavid’s Pronunciation of English in the Atlantic States.

Butters, Ronald R., and Kristin Stettler. 1986. “Causative and Existential ‘Have ... to’.” American Speech 61.184-90. [57 Duke University students]. Finds structure used almost exclusively by Southerners and South Midlanders and less by females than males.

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Callary, Robert E. 1973. “Indications of Regular Sound Shifting in an Appalachian Dialect.” Appalachian Journal 1.238-40. Says dialect spellings in Dargan’s 1932 Appalachian novel Call Home the Heart reveal systematic differences between Appalachian dialect and standard English that can demonstrated by phonological rules.

Campbell, John C. 1921. The Southern Highlander and His Homeland. New York: Russell Sage Foundation. Pp. 144-46, comments on Southern Appalachian dialect.

Campbell, Marie. 1937. “Old Time Sayings and Old Tales.” The Folk Life of a Kentucky Mountain Community, pp. 526-50. Nashville, Tenn.: George Peabody College Master’s thesis. [eastern Kentucky]. Mostly transcripts of stories, but a few items on “doctoring” and other matters.

Carpenter, Cal. 1979. “Southern Mountain Sayings.” The Walton War and Tales of the Great Smoky Mountains, pp. 141-90. Lakemont, Ga.: Copple House. [western North Carolina]. List of 266 “quaint and descriptive expressions” with explanatory notes to include the circumstances under which expressions were used and to analyze each “for a better understanding of its meaning and background in the language of the mountain people.”

Carpenter, Charles. 1929. “The Evolution of Our Dialect.” West Virginia Review 7.9,28. [West Virginia]. Discussion of dialect forms author says have passed from currency within previous generation.

Carpenter, Charles. 1933. “Variation in the Southern Mountain Dialect.” American Speech 8.22-25. Subregional differences in Appalachian vocabulary, grammar, and pronunciation.

Carpenter, Charles. 1934. “Remnants of Archaic English in West Virginia.” West Virginia Review 12.77-79,94-95. Discussion of archaisms with precedents cited from Elizabethan drama and other British literary sources.

Carpenter, Charles. 1936. “West Virginia Expletives.” West Virginia Review 13.346-47. Lists and discusses colorful expressions and curses of surprise, anger, and confoundment.

Carpenter, Charles. 1973. “The Folk-Language of Mid-Appalachia.” Journal of the Alleghenies 9.27-31. [West Virginia]. Essay stressing that Appalachian English is combination of old forms inherited from British dialects and new forms developed in mountain speech.

Carpenter, Charles. 1973. “Pronunciation and Grammar in Mid-Appalachia.” Journal of the Alleghenies 9.31-35. [West Virginia]. Peculiarities of mountain speech, including unusual examples of contraction and assimilation.

Carson, Sam, and A. W. Vick. 1972. Hillbilly Cookin 2: More Recipes, More Sayings. Thorn Hill, Tenn.: Clinch Mountain Lookout. [East Tennessee]. Appalachian talk, pp. 59-60; What the old folks said, pp. 61-62. Thirty-seven lexical and proverbial items.

Carter, Michael Vaughn. 1979. “Culture, Language and Organization.” Religious Language and Collective Action: A Study of Voluntarism in a Rural Appalachian Church, pp. 57-70. Huntingdon, W.V.: Marshall University M.A. thesis. [southwest West Virginia]. Analyzes language of the Appalachian church in terms of a “semi-autonomous symbolic cognitive system” enabling collective action.

Carter, Michael Vaughn. 1981. “Religious Language and Collective Action: A Study of Voluntarism in a Rural Appalachian Church.” Appalachia/America: Proceedings of the 1980 Appalachian Studies Conference, ed. by Wilson Somerville, pp. 218-29. Johnson City, Tenn.: Appalachian Consortium Press. [southwest West Virginia]. Examines “use of religious language in the church and the organization of the church as a voluntary organization.”

Carver, Craig M. 1987. American Regional Dialects: A Word Geography. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. xiii + 317 pp. 92 maps. Comprehensive description of character of American geographical dialects, based on lexical and morphological data from Linguistic Atlas of the United States and Canada and Dictionary of American Regional English. Review: T. C. Frazer. 1987. American Speech 62.154-59.

Cassidy, Frederic G. 1985. Dictionary of American Regional English, Volume 1 (A-C). Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press. Volume 2 (D-H) 1991; Volume 3 (I-O) 1996; Volume 4 (P-Sk) 2002. Numerous maps. Comprehensive historical dictionary of American folk vocabulary, based on 1700 interviews and on immense range of printed sources; introduction includes explanation of mapping and regional labels, essay on changes in American folk speech, guide to pronunciation, text of questionnaire, and list of informants. Reviews: M. Ching. 1987. Southeastern Conference on Linguistics Review 11.195-203; V. G. McDavid. 1987. Journal of English Linguistics 20.249-54; J. B. McMillan. 1987. Alabama Review 40.157-58; T. K. Pratt. 1986. Canadian Journal of Linguistics 31.179-85; W. Viereck. 1986. English World-Wide 7.317-20; W. Wolfram. 1986. American Speech 61.345-52.

Catlett, L. C. 1888. “‘We-uns’ and ‘You-uns’.” Century 36.477-78. [Virginia]. Says he has never heard these forms in the state, even though writers about Virginia put them in the mouths of their characters.
Cauthern, Elizabeth Greear. 1955. “A Lexical Study of the Vocabulary of Harriette Arnow’s Regional Novel, Hunter’s Horn.” Charlottesville: University of Virginia M.A. thesis. 53 pp. Continues approach of Armstrong for second third of novel (pp. 151-300).

Cavender, Anthony. 1990. A Folk Medical Lexicon of South Central Appalachia. Johnson City, Tenn.: East Tennessee State University.

Cavender, Anthony. 2006. “Medical and Health Terminology.” Encyclopedia of Appalachia, ed. by Rudy Abramson and Jean Haskell, 1021-22. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press.

Champion, Larry S. 1983. “‘Bold to Play’: Shakespeare in North Carolina.” Shakespeare in the South, ed. by Philip C. Kolin, 231-46. Jackson: University Press of Mississippi. P. 238, quotes theatre directors and critics as testifying that Shakespearean language is more intelligible in Western North Carolina than elsewhere in country because it is closer to the everyday speech there.

Chapman, Maristan. 1928. “Glossary.” The Happy Mountain, pp. 311-13. New York: Literary Guild. Eighty-eight terms from novel.

Chapman, Maristan. 1929. “American Speech as Practiced in the Southern Highlands.” Century 117.617-23. Surveys characteristic Southern mountain speech and compares it to earlier British usage.

Chapman, Maristan. 1929. “Glossary.” Homeplace, pp. 273-75. New York: Viking. Eighty-six terms from novel.

Chapman, Maristan. 1932. “Glossary.” The Weather Tree, pp. 297-98. New York: Viking. Sixty-one terms from novel.

Chapman, Maristan. 1933. “Glossary.” Glen Hazard, pp. 321-22. New York: Knopf. Twenty-three terms from novel.

Chase, Richard. 1943. [Glossary]. The Jack Tales: Told by R. M. Ward and His Kindred in the Beech Mountain Section of Western North Carolina and by Other Descendants of Council Harmon (1803-1896) Elsewhere in the Southern Mountains; with Three Tales from Wise County, Virginia, ed. by Richard Chase, pp. 201-02. New York: Houghton-Mifflin. Twenty-nine terms.

Childs, Becky. 2005. “Investigating the Local Construction of Identity: Sociophonetic Variation in Smoky Mountain African American Women’s Speech.” Athens: University of Georgia Ph.D. dissertation.

Childs, Becky, and Christine Mallinson. 2004. “Dialect Accommodation in Appalachia: Dialect Accommodation and Substrate Influence.” English World-Wide 25.27-50. Finds that for African American speakers in a small, southwest North Carolina community, regional identity and orientation toward local culture (rather than a superregional African American one) account for patterns of morphological variation.

Childs, Becky, and Christine Mallinson. 2006. “The Significance of Lexical Items in the Construction of Ethnolinguistic Identity: A Case Study of Adolescent Spoken and Online Language.” American Spech 81.3-30. {Southwestern North Carolina]. Using data from interviews and instant-message devices, argues that African American teenagers in a small rural community use lexical items and meanings from urban African American culture rather than phonological or morphological features to mark their ethnicity as different from whites.

Christian, Donna. 1975. “Non-participle ‘Done’ and Non-productive Classification.” Eric Document 116 499. 26 pp. Examines proposals for classifying auxiliary done and, using data from Appalachian English, says that both semantic information (perfectiveness) and pragmatic information (emphasis) must be added to the syntactic information before classifying it.

Christian, Donna M. 1978. “Aspects of Verb Usage in Appalachian Speech.” Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Ph.D. dissertation. Abstract in Dissertation Abstracts International 39.7317A. [26 males, 26 females, ages 7-93, Southern West Virginia]. Examines patterns in irregular verb principal parts and subject-verb concord and provides evidence for language change in progress. Classifies verbs with nonstandard principal parts into five categories and finds nonstandard subject-verb concord “occurs only with plural subjects, with the exception of the item ‘don’t’.”

Christian, Donna. 1991. “The Personal Dative in Appalachian English.” Dialects of English: Studies in Grammatical Variation, ed. by Peter Trudgill and J. K. Chambers, 11-19. London: Longman. Examines semantic and grammatical patterns of the personal dative based on research in West Virginia.

Christian, Donna, Walt Wolfram, and Nanjo Dube. 1984. “Variation and Change in Geographically Isolated Dialects: Appalachian English and Ozark English.” Publication of the American Dialect Society 74. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press. Also published as Eric Document 246 682. [northwest Arkansas, southern West Virginia]. Compares Ozark and Appalachian English to determine similarity between the two and examines how each preserves patterns and undergoes change; includes extended treatment of auxiliary verbs, personal datives, a-prefixing, patterns of irregular verbs, and subject-verb concord.

Clark, Amy. 2000. “Can’t Pronounce ‘Appalachia’? Then Don’t Mess With Us.” Now and Then: The Appalachian Magazine 17 (Summer): 29-30.

Clark, Joe. 1986. “Explanation of Tennessee Words and Terms.” The Tennessee Sampler, ed. by Peter Jenkins et al., 276. Nashville, Tenn.: Thomas Nelson. Ten items.

Clark, Joseph D. 1962. “Folk Speech from North Carolina.” Southern Folklore Quarterly 26.301-25. List of 750 items of dialect, slang, and colloquial usage collected from freshmen students at North Carolina State University and compared to dictionaries and Frank Brown collection of North Carolina folklore materials.

Clark, Joseph D. 1962. “Folk Speech from North Carolina.” North Carolina Folklore 10.6-12. List of 649 items.

Clarke, Kenneth, and Mary Clarke. 1974. “Kentucky Words and Brief Expressions.” The Harvest and the Reapers: Oral Traditions of Kentucky, pp. 17-31. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky. Surveys early observation of Kentucky folkspeech by folklorists.

Clarke, Mary Washington. 1960. “Folklore of the Cumberlands as Reflected in the Writings of Jesse Stuart.” Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Ph.D. dissertation. [Kentucky]

Clarke, Mary Washington. 1963. “As Jesse Stuart Heard It in Kentucky.” Kentucky Folklore Record 9.85-86. Folk expressions in Stuart’s writings.

Clarke, Mary Washington. 1964. “Jesse Stuart’s Writings Preserve Passing Folk Idiom.” Southern Folklore Quarterly 28.157-98. [Northeastern Kentucky]. Generous sampling of vocabulary items from Stuart’s fiction.

Clarke, Mary Washington. 1965. “Proverbs, Proverbial Phrases, and Proverbial Comparisons in the Writings of Jesse Stuart.” Southern Folklore Quarterly 29.142-63. Glossary.

Clarke, Mary Washington. 1972. “To Dance in a Hog Trough: A Folk Expression.” Kentucky Folklore Record 18.68-69. Says term still has currency in Kentucky as humorous remark to any girl whose younger sister is likely to marry first.

Cleaves, Mildred P. 1946. “King’s English Reigns in the Kentucky Knobs.” In Kentucky 10.3.35. Brief defense of mountain speech, whose speakers are “linguistic purists and sole custodians of His Majesty’s diction as it was originally enunciated.”

Cogdill, Cindy A., Judith Harkins, and Karl Nicholas. 1978. “A Good Mill Will Make You Fill Better.” Southeastern Conference on Linguistics Bulletin 2.2.62-66. [91 Western North Carolina, ages 7 to 79]. Investigates laxing of /i/ before /l/ as change in progress in words like steal; finds words orthographic <ea> (e.g. steal) more likely to lax than ones with <ee> (e.g. steel.

Coleman, William L. 1975. “Multiple Modals in Southern States English.” Bloomington: Indiana University Ph.D. dissertation. Abstract in Dissertation Abstracts International 36.2174-75A. Using quantitative analysis and implicational scaling, identifies three regional patterns of multiple modal variation in North Carolina with range of acceptable modal combinations increasing from east to west.

Coleman, Wilma. 1936. “Mountain Dialects in North Georgia.” Athens: University of Georgia M.A. thesis. 30 pp. Sentimental study of archaic and unusual forms undertaken “with a desire to preserve a portion of this quaint old English dialect as the mountaineers in the most remote regions use it.”

Combs, Josiah H. 1916. “Dialect of the Folk-Song.” Dialect Notes 4.311-18. [Appalachia, West Virginia to Georgia]. Dialect words; phonological and syntactic irregularities.

Combs, Josiah H. 1916. “Old, Early, and Elizabethan English in the Southern Mountains.” Dialect Notes 4.283-97. [Appalachians from West Virginia to North Alabama]. Gives special attention to similarities between Appalachian and Shakespearean forms. Reprinted in Appalachian Heritage 9.27-37.

Combs, Josiah H. 1918. “A Word-List from the South.” Dialect Notes 5.31-40. Mainly mountain English from Arkansas, Kentucky, North Carolina, Tennessee, and Virginia.

Combs, Josiah H. 1921. “Early English Slang Survivals in the Mountains of Kentucky.” Dialect Notes 5.115-17. Relic vocabulary from Old, Elizabethan, and Irish English.

Combs, Josiah H. 1921. “First Warrant Issued in Breathitt County, Kentucky.” Dialect Notes 5.119-20. Short document containing naive spellings.

Combs, Josiah H. 1921. “Kentucky Items.” Dialect Notes 5.118-19. Twenty-seven words and phrases.

Combs, Josiah H. 1921. “Transpositions and Scrambled Words.” Dialect Notes 5.119. [Kentucky]. Eleven items, mostly metatheses.

Combs, Josiah H. 1922. “A Word-List from Georgia.” Dialect Notes 5.183-84. Identifies terms from Joel Chandler Harris’ Uncle Remus stories that are also used by Kentucky mountaineers.

Combs, Josiah H. 1923. “Addenda from Kentucky.” Dialect Notes 5.242-43. Twenty-one expressions.

Combs, Josiah H. 1931. “The Language of the Southern Highlander.” Publication of the Modern Language Association 46.1302-22. Compiles figurative expressions, colloquialisms, pronunciation, and syntax of Southern Appalachia.

Combs, Josiah H. 1943. The Kentucky Highlands from a Native Mountaineer’s Viewpoint. Lexington, Ky.: J. L. Richardson. 44 pp. Scattered references to dialect throughout.

Combs, Josiah H. 1944. “A Word-List from the Southern Highlands.” Publication of the American Dialect Society 2.17-23. [southern Appalachia]. Includes list of figures of speech and idioms.

Combs, Josiah H. 1957. “Spellin’ ’em Down in the Highlands.” Kentucky Folklore Record 3.69-73. [Kentucky]. Anecdotes about unlettered techniques for spelling in spelling bees, the “proper” use of language in the mountains, how mountain residents greet one another and give directions to strangers, etc.

Combs, Josiah H. 1959. “Dialect Terms in Boys’ Games.” Kentucky Folklore Record 5.30,136. Nine terms from Knott County, Kentucky.

Combs, Josiah H. 1976. Combs: A Study in Comparative Philology and Genealogy. Pensacola, Fla.: Privately printed. Traces naming patterns in Combs family since 18th century.

Combs, Mona R. 1958. “Archaic Words Used in North Eastern Kentucky.” Morehead, Ky.: Morehead State College M.A. thesis. iv + 60 pp. [Rowan County]. Compiles 679 words collected from older residents of county by high school students in effort to compare vocabulary of Shakespeare with that of Kentucky mountains; lists 100 Middle English words (pp. 56-59), and presents statistical data on informants’ knowledge and use of them.

Cooper, Horton. 1972. North Carolina Mountain Folklore and Miscellany. Murfreesboro, N.C.: Johnson. [western North Carolina]. Riddles, pp. 55-56; Children’s rhymes, pp. 82-85; The early vernacular of the North Carolina mountains, pp. 87-97; Proverbs and expressions, pp. 101-02.

Cornett, Terry. 1978. “Local Place-Names are Interesting.” Mountain Memories 11.14-16 (Spring-Summer).

Cox, Ellen D. 1969. “A Study of Dialect Peculiarities of Scott County, Tennessee Secondary School Students.” Knoxville: University of Tennessee M.A. thesis. [northeast Tennessee].

Crozier, Alan. 1984. “The Scotch-Irish Influence on American English.” American Speech 59.310-31. 5 maps. Discusses problems in making cross-Atlantic comparisons and identifies thirty-three items used in Midland area of U.S. that reflect influence of Scotch-Irish immigrants.

Cunningham, Rodger. 1971. “Appalachian /part naI/ ‘Almost’: A Notice and Various Etymologies.” American Speech 46.304. [West Virginia, Kentucky]. Believes term, equivalent to “pretty nigh,” is influenced by Scotch-Irish pronunciation of Gaelic term.

Curtis, Jay L. 1942. “The Dialect Writing of Charles Egbert Craddock in the Light of the Author’s Background.” Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina M.A. thesis.

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Dabney, Joseph Earl. 1974. A Chronicle of Corn Whiskey from King James’ Ulster Plantation to America’s Appalachians and the Moonshine Life. New York: Scribner’s. Pp. xix-xvi, glossary of terms used in Southern Appalachian moonshining.

Dalton, Alford Paul. 1936. “Elizabethan Left-Overs in Allen County, Kentucky.” Bowling Green: Western Kentucky University M.A. thesis. 52 pp. Condensed in Bulletin of the Kentucky Folklore Society, (Jan. 1938), 13-16. Discusses obsolete words, pronunciations, grammatical features, meanings, and idioms.

Dalton, Alford P. 1950. “A Word-List from Southern Kentucky.” Publication of the American Dialect Society 13.22-23. Twenty-two miscellaneous items compared to British dialect usage.

Damron, Shayla R. 1977. “A Bidialectal Approach: Strategies for Assimilating the Mainstream Dialect into the Non-Mainstream Southern Mountain Dialect.” Eric Document 210 128. 29 pp. [eastern Kentucky]. Instructional packet to assess an individual’s language patterns and series of strategies and exercises for increasing student awareness of dialect forms produced.

Damron, Shayla R. 1977. “Instructional Packet: A Bidialectal Approach.” Berea College Appalachian Center. 26 pp. Focuses on black mountain children.

Dannenberg, Clare J. 2006. “Attitudes toward Appalachian English.” Encyclopedia of Appalachia, ed. by Rudy Abramson and Jean Haskell, 1012. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press.

Dannenberg, Clare J. 2006. “Regional Identity: A Real Time, Longitudinal Study of Appalachian English in Mercer and Monroe Counties, West Virginia.” Southern Journal of Linguistics 28.49-63. [Southern West Virginia]. Finds that the inventory of non-standard phonological and morphological features has not changed in twenty-five years since the Wolfram and Christian (1976) study, but that their quantitative occurrence has diminished significantly.

Daugneaux, Christine B. 1981. Appalachia: A Separate Place, A Unique People. Parsons, W.V.: McClain. “Why do Appalachians talk that way?,” pp. 30-35; “Polyfoxing, a lost art being revived,” p. 63. Presents standard case that mountain English is “older in its forms and rich in unique vocabulary and in that sense at least is purer English” and explains polyfoxing as the “art of making homemade medicine.”

Davis, Arthur Kyle, Jr., and Archibald A. Hill. 1933. “Dialect Notes on Records of Folk Songs from Virginia.” American Speech 8.4.52-56. [Southwest Virginia]. Discriminates which features of recorded folk songs are due to rhythm and other effects of singing and which are of genuine interest to dialectologists and focuses on vowel quality, postvocalic /r/, pronunciation of normally unstressed function words when stressed, verb principal parts, and other features.

Davis, Hubert J. 1973. Glossary. “Pon My Honor Hit’s the Truth”: Tall Tales from the Mountains, pp. 93-102. Murfreesboro, N.C.: Johnson. Glossary of 323 items.

Davis, Lawrence M. 1970. “Some Social Aspects of the Speech of Blue-Grass Kentucky.” Orbis 19.337-41. [10 white, 1 black, Eastern Kentucky]. Says Linguistic Atlas of the North Central States data for Kentucky is insufficient for generalizing about systematic black-white differences in verb principal parts and in pronunciation.

Davis, Lawrence M. 1971. “A Study of Appalachian Speech in a Northern Urban Setting.” Final Report. National Center for Educational Research and Development, Washington, D.C. Eric Document 061 205. 63 pp. [25 speakers, Eastern Kentucky and Southern West Virginia, 19 having moved to Chicago]. Compares speech of Appalachian residents with Appalachian migrants to Chicago using diafeature rules; finds no significant differences in phonology and few nonstandard grammatical features in speech of any informants.

Davis, Lawrence M. 1977. “Dialectology and Linguistics.” Orbis 26.24-30. Theoretical article examining method for distinguishing dialects on basis of diafeatures, shown in an example from Eastern Kentucky.

Davis, Margaret B. 1975. “A Study of East Tennessee Regional Phonology: Its Influence on Reading Performance.” Knoxville: University of Tennessee Ph.D. dissertation. 88 pp. Abstract in Dissertation Abstracts International 36.7183A. [20 white 1st, 3rd graders, 20 white elementary teachers, Sevier County, East Tennessee]. Finds that both students and teachers differed from expected pronunciations and that both groups showed wide variation in pronunciation.

Davison, Zeta C. 1953. “A Word-List from the Appalachians and the Piedmont Area of North Carolina.” Publication of the American Dialect Society 19.8-14. [North Carolina, Kentucky, Tennessee]. 113 items collected over period of 30 years.

Dear, Ruth. 1960. “Some Queries about Regionalisms.” American Speech 35.298-300. [North Carolina, Arkansas]. Brief comments about three terms.

den Hollander, A. N. J. 1934. “Über die Bevolkerung der Appalachen.” Zeitschrift der Gesellschaft für Erdkunde 7/8.241-56.

Denson, Lynn C. 1989. “Dialect in the Fiction of Jesse Stuart and Harriett Arnow.” Carrollton, Ga.: West Georgia College M.A. thesis. [Kentucky]
Dial, Wylene. 1969. “The Dialect of the Appalachian People.” West Virginia History 30.463-71. Argues with those who consider Appalachian dialect a corruption of English; says it is more accurate to consider it an archaic variety and documents ancestry of characteristic Appalachian forms from 16th-century and earlier literature. Reprinted in B. B. Maurer, ed. 1969. Mountain Heritage, pp. 82-91. Ripley, W.V.: Mountain State Art and Craft Fair, Cedar Lake; in D. N. Mielke, ed. 1978. Teaching Mountain Children, pp. 49-58. Boone, N.C.: Appalachian Consortium.

Dial, Wylene. 1970. “Folk Speech is English, too.” Mountain Life and Work 46.2.16-18 (Feb.); 46.5.15-17 (May).

Dial, Wylene P. 1976. “Appalachian Dialect.” The West Virginia Heritage Encyclopedia, ed. by Jim Comstock, pp. 1320-34. Richwood, W.V.: privately published.

Dickinson, Meriwether B. 1941. “A Lexicographical Study of the Vocabulary of Greenup County, Kentucky, Set Forth in Jesse Stuart’s Beyond Dark Hills.” Charlottesville: University of Virginia M.A. thesis. [Northeastern Kentucky]. 71 pp. Lists 250 words from Stuart’s autobiographical novel not in current dictionaries; points out tautological expressions, Scottish retentions, and unusual types of compounds.
Dietrich, Julia C. 1981. “The Gaelic Roots of a-prefixing in Appalachian English.” American Speech 56.314. Says form reported by Wolfram derives from Gaelic verbal noun construction and results “not from a careless handling of English grammar but from a careful preservation of Scottish Gaelic grammar, learned generations ago and applied to English long before the migration to America.”

Dingus, L. R. 1915. “A Word List from Virginia.” Dialect Notes 4.177-93. [Scott County, southwest Virginia]. Discusses phonology, morphology, and syntax, and presents wordlist of 500 items.

Dingus, L. R. 1927. “Appalachian Mountain Words.” Dialect Notes 5.468-71. [Kentucky]. Wordlist of 100 items and shorter lists of specimen pronunciations and grammatical items from James Watt Raine’s The Land of Saddle Bags.

Dingus, L. R. 1944. “Tobacco Words.” Publication of the American Dialect Society 2.63-72. [Kentucky, East Tennessee, southwest Virginia]. Vocabulary of tobacco farming; additions from Southern Virginia by George P. Wilson.

Dockery, Bill. 2000. “Did You’uns Hear That? A Pokeful of Notes on Accent.” Now and Then: The Appalachian Magazine 17 (Summer): 22-24.

Dominick, Doris S. 1955. “A Lexical Study of the Vocabulary of a Part of Harriett Arnow’s Regional Novel, Hunter’s Horn.” Charlottesville: University of Virginia M.A. thesis. 72 pp. Continues approach of Armstrong for final third of novel.

Dressman, Michael R. 1979. “‘Redd up’.” American Speech 54.141-45. Cites the term from Pennsylvania to Carolinas and attributes its distribution to settlement by the early Scotch-Irish.

Dudley, Fred A. 1946. “‘Swarp’ and Some Other Kentucky Words.” American Speech 21.270-73. [Northeastern Kentucky]. Glossary from Rowan County.

Dumas, Bethany K. 1975. “Smoky Mountain Speech.” Pioneer Spirit 76, ed. by Dolly Berthelot, pp. 24-29. Knoxville, Tenn.: Privately printed. [East Tennessee]. Overview article for lay readers.

Dumas, Bethany K. 1977. “Research Needs in Tennessee English.” Papers in Language Variation: SAMLA-ADS Collection, ed. by David L. Shores and Carole P. Hines, pp. 201-08. University: University of Alabama Press. Programmatic statement of research needs and proposal for Tennessee Language Survey, with interview and goals of the project outlined.

Dumas, Bethany K. 1981. “East Tennessee Talk.” An Encyclopedia of East Tennessee, ed. by Jim Stokely and Jeff D. Johnson, pp. 170-76. Oak Ridge, Tenn.: Children’s Museum. Survey of grammar, pronunciation, and language attitudes of region.

Dumas, Bethany K. 1999. “Southern Mountain English: The Language of the Ozarks and the Southern Appalachians.” The Workings of Language: From Prescriptios to Perspectives, ed, by Rebecca S. Wheeler, 67-79. Westport, Conn.: Praeger. Autobiographical account of the author’s youth and teaching experiences, followed by a survey of characteristic linguistic patterns shared between the two mountain regions.

Duncan, Hannibal G. 1926. “The Southern Highlanders.” Journal of Applied Sociology 10.556-61. Stresses isolation of mountain people, of which archaic language is one result.

Duncan, Hannibal Gerald, and Winnie Leach Duncan. 1929. “Superstitions and Sayings among the Southern Highlanders.” Journal of American Folklore 42.233-37. Includes remarks on dialects of subregions of Appalachia.

Duncan, John J., Jr. 2004. “Letter from East Tennessee: In Praise of Accents.” Chronicles 28.1.43-44. Popular article by a U.S. Congressman defending and expressing pride in his native idiom.

Dunlap, Fayette. 1913. “A Tragedy of Surnames.” Dialect Notes 4.7-8. On Americanization of family names of early settlers from Pennsylvania in Boyle County, Kentucky.

Dunn, Durwood. 1977. “The Folk Culture of Cades Cove, Tennessee.” Tennessee Folklore Society Bulletin 43.67-87. [Blount County, East Tennessee]. Reviews linguistic research done on area of the Smoky mountains, pp. 76-78.

Dunn, Durwood. 1979. “Mary Noialles Murfree: A Reappraisal.” Appalachian Journal 6.197-206. P. 201, discusses early critical reception of author’s portrayal of mountain speech.

Dwyer, Paul. 1971. Dictionary for Yankees and Other Uneducated People. Highlands, N.C.: Merry Mountaineesr. 36 pp. Compendium of unusual expressions and spellings, with cartoons, for tourist trade.

Dwyer, Paul. 1975. Thangs Yankees Don’ Know: Dialect, Lawin’, Greens, Recipes, Squar’ Dancin’, Beauty Aids, Wild Life, Remedies, Signs, Stills, and Folks-Fire Things. Highlands, N.C.: Merry Mountaineers. 40 pp. Thangs yuh should larn!, pp. 4-5; Yore wrong!, p. 15; Shor and sartain: redundancies, p. 17; Folk expressions, p. 29; The way it was said!, p. 31. Collection of unusual tidbits about mountain life for tourists.

Dwyer, Paul. 1976. Southern Sayin’s for Yankees and Other Immigrants: Plus- Yankee Woids that “Break Up” Southerners. Highlands, N.C.: Merry Mountaineers. 36 pp. Compendium of unusual expressions and spellings, with cartoons, for tourist trade.

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Earley, Tony. 1998. “The Quare Gene: What will Happen to the Secret Language of the Appalachians?” New Yorker (September 21), 80-84.

Eastridge, Nancy Emilia. 1939. “Common Comparisons and Folk Sayings. A Study of Folklore in Adair County, Kentucky,” 114-34. Nashville, Tenn.: George Peabody College Master’s thesis. Anecdotal discussion of similes and list of 155 “epithets used to show surprise, anger, disgust, or unhappiness.”

Edmiston, William C. 1930. “The Speech of the Hill People of Todd County, Kentucky.” Kentucky Folklore and Poetry Magazine 5.3-9. [southwest Kentucky]. Says hill residents live and speak as their ancestors did a century earlier and discusses typical words and expressions.

Edson, Rev. H. A., and Edith M. Fairchild. 1895. “Tennessee Mountains in Word Lists.” Dialect Notes 1.370-77. [mountain areas of Tennessee, North Carolina, Kentucky]. 145 words and phrases, fifteen exclamations, comments on grammar and pronunciations.

Edwards, Dorothy E. 1935. “The Dialect of the Southern Highlander as Recorded in North Carolina Novels.” Rochester, N.Y.: University of Rochester M.A. thesis. Discussion of dialect used in the writing of Olive Dargon, Paul Green, DuBose Heyward.

Eliason, Norman E. 1956. Tarheel Talk: An Historical Study of the English Language in North Carolina to 1860. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press. 324 pp. Compendium of linguistic, historical, and cultural material from unpublished letters, diaries, plantation books, church records, legal papers, and other manuscripts in Southern Historical Collection at Univ. of North Carolina at Chapel Hill library. Surveys patterns of vocabulary, grammar, and pronunciation, as well as language attitudes and language variation, as revealed in these documents. Reviews: W. Barritt. 1957. Virginia Magazine of History and Biography 65.375-76; D. E. Baughan. 1957. American Speech 32.283-86; M. Bryant. 1958. Midwest Folklore 8.53-56; R. Burchfield. 1958. Review of English Studies n.s. 9. 454; P. Christophersen. 1958. English Studies 39.183-85; H. Galinsky. 1958. Anglia 76.452-60; R. Gaskin. 1957. Carolina Quarterly 9.58-59; W. C. Greet. 1958. Modern Language Journal 73.64-67; B. Kottler. 1957. South Atlantic Quarterly 56.512-14; J. B. Lewis. 1957. North Carolina English Teacher 14.3.16-17; R. I. McDavid, Jr. 1958. Journal of English and Germanic Philology 57.160-65; S. Potter. 1957. Modern Language Review 52.624; T. Pyles. 1957. Language 33.256-61; R. H. Spiro, Jr. 1957. Journal of Southern History 23.375-76; C. K. Thomas. 1958. Quarterly Journal of Speech 44.196; R. Walser. 1957. North Carolina Historical Review 34.86-87; R. M. Wilson. 1958. Year’s Work in English Studies 37.67.

Ellis, Michael E. 1984. “The Relationship of Appalachian English with the British Regional Dialects.” Johnson City: East Tennessee State University M.A. thesis. 55 pp. Compares lexical, phonological, and morphological evidence in material collected by Tracey Miller and James R. Reese in East Tennessee and material in Survey of English Dialects in England, but says the few correspondences found form no uniform pattern.

Ellis, Michael E. 1992. “On the Use of Dialect as Evidence: Albion’s Seed in Appalachia.” Appalachian Journal 19.278-97. Critique of evidence for Appalachian dialect presented by David Hackett Fischer in his Albion’s Seed: Four British Folkways in America.

Ellis, Michael E. 2006. “Appalachian English and Ozark English.” Encyclopedia of Appalachia, ed. by Rudy Abramson and Jean Haskell, 1007-08. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press.

Ellis, Michael E. 2006. “Appalachian English in Literature.” Encyclopedia of Appalachia, ed. by Rudy Abramson and Jean Haskell, 1008-11. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press.

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Farr, T. J. 1936. “Folk Speech of Middle Tennessee.” American Speech 11.275-76. Reports sixty-three words and expressions used in at least five counties.

Farr, T. J. 1939. “The Language of the Tennessee Mountain Regions.” American Speech 14.89-92. 150 items collected in five counties of Middle Tennessee.

Farr, T. J. 1940. “More Tennessee Expressions.” American Speech 15.446-48. Additions to earlier Tennessee lists.

Farrier, Ph. H. 1936. “‘Few of’ and ‘Few Bit’.” American Speech 11.278-79. [Giles County, southwest Virginia]. Reports two expressions as intensifiers equivalent to rather.

Farwell, Harold. 2006. “Logging Terminology.” Encyclopedia of Appalachia, ed. by Rudy Abramson and Jean Haskell, 1020-21. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press.

Farwell, Harold and J. Karl Nicholas. 1993. Smoky Mountain Voices: A Lexicon of Southern Appalachian Speech. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky.

Feagin, Louise C[rawford]. 1976. “A Sociolinguistic Study of Alabama White English: The Verb Phrase in Anniston.” 2 vols. Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Ph.D. dissertation. Abstract in Dissertation Abstracts International 38.3445A. Published in abridged form as Feagin (1979) below.

Feagin, Crawford. 1979. Variation and Change in Alabama English: A Sociolinguistic Study of the White Community. Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press. Foreword by William Labov. 395 pp. [67 urban, 15 rural; 34 teenagers; 5 middle aged, 43 older; 44 females, 38 males, Anniston, Alabama]. Comprehensive analysis of linguistic and social (class, urban/rural, age, gender) constraints on features of verb phrase (tense, aspect, person-number agreement, modality, negation, etc.) in white speech in Anniston, Alabama, comparing them to black speech, British speech, and earlier stages of English. Reviews: R. Butters. 1981. Language 57.735-38; B. Davis. 1982. Language in Society 11.139-41; T. C. Frazer. 1980. Journal of English Linguistics 14.41-44; R. McDavid, Jr. 1982. English World-Wide 2.99-110; J. B. McMillan. 1980. Southeastern Conference on Linguistics Bulletin 4.86-88; M. I. Miller. 1981. American Speech 56.288-95; B. Rigsby. 1981. Australian Journal of Linguistics 1.122-27; H. Ulherr. 1982. Anglia 100.484-85; H. B. Woods. 1981. Canadian Journal of Linguistics 26.250-51.

Felts, John H. 2001. “Lapsed Language of Appalachia.” Verbatim: The Language Quarterly 26 (Winter): 25-27. Cites archaic vocabulary used by Charles Frazier in his Cold Mountain (1997) and says they give the novel historical authenticity.

Fink, Paul M. 1951. “Some East Tennessee Place Names.” Tennessee Folklore Society Bulletin 7.40-50.

Fink, Paul M. 1972. That’s Why They Call it ...: the Names and Lore of the Great Smokies. Gatlinburg, Tenn.: Great Smoky Mountains Natural History Association.

Fink, Paul M. 1974. Bits of Mountain Speech Gathered between 1910 and 1965 along the Mountains Bordering North Carolina and Tennessee. Boone, N.C.: Appalachian Consortium. 31 pp. Dictionary of 556 items, with citations. Review: R. Whitener. 1975. Appalachian Journal 2.230-31.

Fink, Paul M. and Mylon H. Avery. 1937. “The Nomenclature of the Great Smoky Mountains.” East Tennessee Historical Society Publications 9.53-64.

Fischer, David Hackett. 1989. “Backcountry Speech Ways: Border Origins of Highland Speech.” Albion’s Seed: Four British Folkways in America, 652-55. New York: Oxford University Press.  Attributes distinctiveness of the dialect of Appalachia and the American back-country to 18th-century immigration patterns from Ireland, Scotland, and northern England.

Fitzhugh, Jewell K. 1969. “Old English Survivals in Mountain Speech.” English Journal 58.1224-27. [southern Appalachia, Ozarks]. Vocabulary and grammar typical of old-fashioned mountain speech, with analogues cited from Chaucer and Shakespeare.

Flanigan, Beverly. 2000. “Mapping the Ohio Valley: South Midland, Lower North, or Appalachian?” American Speech 75.344-47. [Southeastern Ohio]. Examines vocabulary, pronunciation, and grammar of Appalachian Ohio that differs from the rest of the state.

Flanigan, Beverly. 2002. “Different Ways of Talking in the Buckeye State.” Language Magazine 2.30-34. Reprinted in Walt Wolfram and Ben Ward, eds. 2005. American Voices: How American Dialects Differ from Coast to Coast. Malden, Mass.: Blackwell.

Flanigan, Beverly. 2004. “Languages and Dialects in the Midwest.” The Midwest, ed. by Joseph W. Slade and Judith Yaross Lee, 323-48. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood.

Flanigan, Beverly. 2005. “Appalachian Women and Language: Old and New Forms as Reflections of a Changingn Image.” Beyond Hill and Hollow: Original Readings in Appalachian Women’s Studies, ed. by Elizabeth Engelhardt, 177-95. Athens: Ohio University Press.

Flanigan, Beverly. 2006. “Upper Ohio Valley Speech.” Encyclopedia of Appalachia, ed. by Rudy Abramson and Jean Haskell, 1030-31. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press.

Flanigan, Beverly, and F. Paul Norris. 2000. “Cross-dialectal Comprehension as Evidence for Boundary Mapping: Perceptions of the Speech of Southeastern Ohio.” Language Variation and Change 12.175-201. Finds that university students from Appalachian section of Ohio differ less than expected from students from other parts of the state in the comprehension of words with different vowels, but on the basis of data gathered proposes new boundary between the North Midland and the South Midland dialect regions.

Forrester, Christine D. 1952. “A Word Geography of Kentucky.” Lexington: University of Kentucky M.A. thesis. Data from questionnaire. iv + 122 pp., 49 maps. [89 speakers, 29 counties]. Based on postal survey, finds that Kentucky “is intercepted by no main linguistic boundaries, but lies entirely within the broad Midland speech area” and that the state’s vocabulary is “South Midland with restricted occurrence of occasional Southern terms.”

Fox, John, Jr. 1901. “The Southern Mountaineer.” Scribner’s Magazine 29.385-99. Pp. 394-95, claims that “in his speech, the mountaineer touches a very remote past ... there are perhaps two hundred words, meanings, and pronunciations that in the mountaineer’s speech go back unchanged to Chaucer” and cites examples.

Fruit, John P. 1890. “Kentucky Words and Phrases.” Dialect Notes 1.63-69. Glossaries of unusual words and usages and of pronunciations and grammatical forms.

Fruit, John P. 1890. [“Marble Terms from Russellville, Kentucky”]. Dialect Notes 1.24. Twenty-three terms.

Fruit, John P. 1891. “Kentucky Words.” Dialect Notes 1.229-34. Words, pronunciations, grammatical items.

Fullerton, Ralph. 1974. Place Names of Tennessee. Bulletin 73, State of Tennessee Department of Conservation, Division of Geology. Nashville.

Fullerton, Robert. 1980. “An Unhappy Farewell.” West Virginia University Alumni Magazine. Winter/Spring, 6-7. Discusses work of Martha Howard on speech patterns in the state, particularly to resurvey LAMSAS communities covered by Guy Lowman in the 1940s.

Fusilier, Freida M. 1971. “The Speech and Language Characteristics of Rural Appalachian Children.” Appalachian Medicine 3.88-89. [West Virginia]. Believes failure in school is linked to language patterns.


Gainer, Patrick W. 1975. “Speech of the Mountaineers.” Witches Ghosts and Signs: Folklore of the Southern Appalachains, pp. 1-18. Morgantown, W.V.: Seneca.

Garber, Aubrey. 1976. Mountain-ese: Basic Grammar for Appalachia. Radford, Va.: Commonwealth. 105 pp. Popular dictionary of Southern Appalachian speech, with illustrative citation in mock spelling for each entry.

Gaskins, Avery F. 1970. “The Epithet ‘Guinea’ in Central West Virginia.” Philological Papers 17.41-44. Discusses accounts of origin of term as it has become applied to isolated triracial group in Barbour and Taylor counties, West Virginia.

Gates, Michael Foley. 1972. “Language Characteristics of Disadvantaged and Nondisadvantaged Children when Engaged in Problem Tasks.” Morgantown: West Virginia University Ph.D. dissertation. Abstract in Dissertation Abstracts International 33.2915-16A. [88 7th-graders, West Virginia]. Finds no linguistic differences between disadvantaged and nondisadvantaged children but the latter had a superior “nonverbal ability ... to solve problem tasks.”

Goff, John Hedges. n.d. “Ballads and Dialects of the Southern Mountaineers.” Atlanta, Ga.: Oglethorpe University M.A. thesis. 34 pp. Classifies distinctive linguistic forms in mountains as 1) obsolete forms; 2) illiterate and careless forms; or 3) neologisms required by local conditions; includes word-lists from Kentucky, North Carolina, and Tennessee. Much material taken from Josiah Combs.

Greene, Susan Lutters. 1972. “A Comparison of Black and White Speech in a Rural Georgia County.” Athens: University of Georgia M.A. thesis. 482 pp., including transcriptions of data. [4 white, 7 black adults, Walton County, Northeast Georgia]. Finds minimal differences between black and white speech, e.g., only black speech has word-final glottal stop and white speech diphthongizes short front vowels and uses postvocalic /r/ more than black speech; finds no evidence of finite be.

Guthrie, Charles S. 1966. “Corn: The Mainstay of the Cumberland Valley.” Kentucky Folklore Record 13.87-91. Includes comments on localisms.

Guthrie, Charles S. 1968. “Tobacco: Cash Crop of the Cumberland Valley.” Kentucky Folklore Record 14.38-43. Tobacco lexicon used in Central Kentucky.

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H., J. C. 1899. [“You-uns”]. Nation 68.436 (June 8). Says you-uns and we-uns are prevalent in Southern mountain and Piedmont areas settled originally from Pennsylvania.

Hackenberg, Robert G. 1973. “Appalachian English: A Sociolinguistic Study.” Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Ph.D. dissertation. Abstract in Dissertation Abstracts International 33.6893A. [39 speakers, Nicholas County, West Virginia]. Finds subject-verb concord is grammatical feature with most nonstandard forms, subject relative pronoun deletion is heavily favored by existential there, and a-prefixing “is most likely to occur when there is a stress on the duration of the action”; provides rough correlations of nonstandard forms with educational and occupational indexes.

Hackenberg, Robert G. 1975. “The Application of Sociolinguistic Techniques in Rural Appalachia.” Views on Language, ed. by Reza Ordoubadian and Walburga von Raffler-Engel, pp. 192-200. Murfreesboro: Middle Tennessee State University. [West Virginia]. Discusses applicability of socioeconomic indices developed by urban sociologists for measuring social stratification in rural West Virginia.

Hackett, William A. 1940. “An Analysis and Suggested Solution of the Educational Problem Resultant from Dialectal Pronunciations in the Southern Appalachians.” Columbus: Ohio State University Ph.D. dissertation.

Hale, Lulu Cooper. 1930. “A Study of English Pronunciation in Kentucky.” Lexington: University of Kentucky M.A. thesis. 60 pp. [44 University of Kentucky students from 33 counties]. Discusses pronunciation of vowels, diphthongs, and two consonants (postvocalic /r/ and final velar nasal); includes alphabetical list of words.

Hall, Joseph S. 1939. “Recording Speech in the Great Smokies.” Regional Review 3.3-8. Richmond, Va.: National Park Service, Region One. [East Tennessee, Western North Carolina]. Account of fieldwork for his 1942 Ph.D. dissertation.

Hall, Joseph S. 1941. “Mountain Speech in the Great Smokies.” National Park Service History Popular Study Series no. 5. Washington. D.C.: United States Department of the Interior. ii + 13 pp., 6 illustrations. [East Tennessee, Western North Carolina]. Same as preceding item.

Hall, Joseph S. 1942. The Phonetics of Great Smoky Mountain Speech. Also in American Speech 17 (April 1942), part 2. Same as American Speech Reprints and Monographs, No. 4. New York: Columbia University Press. Bibliography, 107-10. New York: Columbia University Ph.D. dissertation. [East Tennessee, Western North Carolina]. Study based on seventy-three recordings of “Arthur the Rat” story, on observations of local speech between 1937 and 1940, and on folk and local stories recorded between 1939 and 1940, covering stressed vowels, unstressed vowels, and consonants, but little attention to social variation. Reviews: R. I. McDavid, Jr. Language 19.184-95; A. H. Marckwardt. 1942. Quarterly Journal of Speech 28.487; L. Roberts. 1964. Mountain Life and Work 40.4.225; D. Whitelock. 1944. Year’s Work in English Studies 23.28-29.

Hall, Joseph S. 1960. Smoky Mountain Folks and Their Lore. Asheville, N.C.: Cataloochee Press. Smokies dialect, pp. 54-65. Glossary of items collected by author in the Tennessee and North Carolina mountains from 1937 to 1956. Review: L Roberts. 1964. Mountain Life and Work 40.4.225.

Hall, Joseph S. 1972. Sayings from Old Smoky. Asheville, N.C.: Cataloochee. 149 pp. Dictionary (pp. 36-144) based on personal interviews and observations, as well as on other printed sources. Reviews: L. Montell. 1972. Kentucky Folklore Record 18.87; C. Williams. 1973. Appalachian Journal 1.61.

Hall, Joseph S. 1978. “Glossary.” Yarns and Tales from the Great Smokies, pp. 74-76. Asheville, N.C.: Cataloochee. 54 items. Review: K. B. Harder. 1980. Tennessee Folklore Society Bulletin 46.144-45.

Hall, Mary P. F. 1977. “Description of the Linguistic Characteristics of the Careful Speech of Recent High School Graduates in Entry-Level Positions of Job Categories of Large Employment in Selected Counties of Southwest Virginia.” Blacksburg: Virginia Polytechnic Institute M.A. thesis.

Hall, Wade. 1970. “‘The Truth is Funny’: A Study of Jesse Stuart’s Humor.” Eric Document 048 250. 79 pp. Also appears in Indiana English Journal 5.2-4. Examines ways Stuart uses material from his own life and observations as subject matter in his fiction, and focuses on Stuart’s use of dialect and natural metaphors of folk speech.

Halpert, Herbert. 1924. [“Language of the Pine Mountain Area”]. Notes from the Pine Mountain Settlement School 2.1-2. [Southeastern Kentucky]. Informal essay on archaisms, especially those with a literary flavor, in mountain speech.

Halpert, Herbert. 1945. “Grapevine Warp an’ Tobacco Stick Fillin’.” Southern Folklore Quarterly 9.223-28. Songs, rimes, and sayings, mostly from Kentucky.

Halpert, Herbert. 1951. “A Pattern of Proverbial Exaggeration from West Kentucky.” Midwest Folklore 1.41-47. A glossary.

Halpert, Herbert. 1956. “Some Wellerisms from Kentucky and Tennessee.” Journal of American Folklore 69.115-22. Sixty-two specimens, most from Kentucky and Tennessee.

Hamilton, Kim, and Dana Holcomb. 1979. “Ole Time Expressions.” Foxfire 13.1.69-72. [northeast Georgia]. List of similes collected by high school students from their grandparents.

Hannum, Alberta Pierson. 1943. “Words and Music.” The Great Smokies and the Blue Ridge, ed. by Roderick Peattie, pp. 146-50. [East Tennessee, western North Carolina]. New York: Vanguard. Reprinted as “Shakespeare’s America” in the author’s Look Back with Love, pp. 29-33. New York: Vanguard. Discusses grammar, pronunciation, Chaucerisms, and distinctive place names in the Smoky Mountains.

Harper, Francis. 1941. “The Way We See It.” North Georgia Review 6.129-30. Glossary of twenty-nine expressions mainly from the Southern Appalachia.

Harris, Alberta. 1948. “Southern Mountain Dialect.” Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University M.A. thesis. Abstract in Louisiana State University Bulletin, n.s. 41.87 (1949). 116 pp. [southern Appalachia, Ozarks, East Texas]. States there is little difference in pronunciation between three areas, based on evidence collected from personal observation, classroom teaching, published literature, and recordings made by author.

Harris, Jesse W. 1946. “The Dialect of Appalachia in Southern Illinois.” American Speech 21.96-99. Discussion, list, and comparison of vocabulary and pronunciation of area to research on Southern Appalachian speech.

Hartman, Erika. 1981. “The Front Vowels before r of the North-Central States.” Chicago: Illinois Institute of Technology Ph.D. dissertation. Abstract in Dissertation Abstracts International 42.3137A. [includes Kentucky]. Discusses diminishing contrasts in phonemic system as revealed in Linguistic Atlas of the North Central States field records.

Hays, Dorothy. 1984. “Old, Old English in Them Thar Hills.” Tennessee Philological Bulletin 21.80-81. [community called “Little Smoky Ridge”]. Cites fifteen forms, including ax, ye, fotch, antic, holpt, sallett, and poke.

Hays, Virgil. 1950. “Philology in the Funnies.” Word Study 25.5.8. Author contends that Southern mountaineers speak “Elizabethan English of the purest lineage” and suggests that this dialect can be found in a comic strip such as Snuffy Smith, whose characters use the term bodacious.

Hays, William S. 1975. “Mountain Language and the English Classics.” Mountain Review 2.1.13-15. Chronicles Kentucky mountaineer’s evolution from attempt to abandon his native speech patterns while at college to defense of mountain expressions as having “ancient legitimate lineage” in works of Chaucer, Shakespeare, and Pope.

Hazen, Kirk. 1996. “Dialect Affinity and Subject-Verb Concord: The Appalachian-Outer Banks Connection.” SECOL Review 20.25-53. Finds that patterns of verbal concord in Appalachia and the Ozarks are similar to those in the Outer Banks of North Carolina.

Hazen, Kirk. 1999. “Studying Dialects in the Mountain State.” West Virginia University Alumni Magazine (Fall), 4-5. Reprinted in Paul W. Justice, ed. 2001. Relevant Linguistics: An Introduction to the Structure and Use of English for Teachers. Palo Alto, Cal.: CSLI. Discusses the author’s West Virginia Dialect Project.

Hazen, Kirk. 2005. “Mergers in the Mountains.” English World-Wide 26.199-221. Examines variation and change in the cot/caught and pen/pin vowel mergers.

Hazen, Kirk. 2006. “African American Appalachian English.” Encyclopedia of Appalachia, ed. by Rudy Abramson and Jean Haskell, 1006. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press.

Hazen, Kirk. forthcoming. “West Virginia Dialects.” West Virginia Encyclopedia, ed. by Ken Sullivan. Charleston, W.V.: West Virginia Humanities Council.

Hazen, Kirk, and Ellen Fluharty. 2001. “Defining Appalachian English.” American Language Review (May-June), 32-33. Reprinted in Walt Wolfram and Ben Ward, eds. 2005. American Voices: How American Dialects Differ from Coast to Coast. Malden, Mass.: Blackwell.

Hazen, Kirk, and Ellen Fluharty. 2004. “Defining Appalachian English.” Linguistic Diversity in the South: Changing Codes, Practices and Ideology, ed. by Margaret Bender, 50-65. Athens: University of Georgia Press. Outlines difficulties in defining “Appalachian English,” especially with reference to West Virginia, and contrasts it with “Appalachian Drawl” (the popular stereotype of the region’s speech); calls for use of term “Appalachian Englishes.”

Heap, Norman A. 1959. “A Vocabulary of Burley Tobacco Growing in Fayette County, Kentucky.” Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University M.A. thesis. [North Central Kentucky]. Compiles list of 275 lexical items used by burley tobacco growers to show usefulness of topical investigation of vocabulary of local industry.

Heap, Norman A. 1966. “A Burley Tobacco Word List from Lexington, Kentucky.” Publication of the American Dialect Society 45.1-27. [North Central Kentucky]. Revision of preceding item.

Helton, William W. 1986. “In a Manner of Speaking.” Around Home in Unicoi County, 373-81. Johnson City, Tenn: Overmountain Press.

Hench, Atcheson L. 1937. “Kentucky Pioneers. American Speech 12.75-76. Twelve lexical items from 1844 document.

Hench, Atcheson L. 1938. “Corbins and Nicolsons - A Preliminary Note.” American Speech 13.77-79. [northern Virginia]. Report on thirty-eight Virginia informants whose speech was tape-recorded by Hench and Archibald Hill.

Hench, Atcheson L. 1939. “To Come to Fetch Fire.” Journal of American Folklore 53.123-24. Says the Chaucerian idiom, meaning “to come for a moment and then leave,” is still used in Virginia and elsewhere in the South.

Hendrickson, Robert. 1986. “Deep Down in the Holler Where the Hoot Owl Hollers at Noon: Hillbilly Tawk.” American Talk: The Words and Ways of American Dialects, 113-29. New York: Viking. 230 pp. Survey of exotic features, based on personal observations and century of published research, but characterized by overstatements and anachronisms.

Hendrickson, Robert. 1996. A Dictionary of Expressions from Appalachia to the Ozarks. Facts on File Dictionary of American Regional Expressions, vol. 4, New York: Facts on File.

Hills, E. C. 1926. “The Plural Forms of ‘You’.” American Speech 2.133. Notes you all used by cultivated speakers in Florida and North Carolina, you’uns used by uncultivated speakers in North Carolina and Tennessee mountains.

Homan, Tim. 2007. “Where the Creek Turkey Tracks: Wild Land and Language.” Appalachian Heritage 35.1.83-89. [North Georgia] Contrasts standard means of calculating distance in miles with a nonstandard system using units like holler and piece and finds the latter is often more accurate, expressive, and helpful in understanding directions.

Howell, Benita J. 1981. “A Survey of Folklife along the Big South Fork of the Cumberland River: Report of Investigations no. 30.” Knoxville: University of Tennessee Department of Anthropology. Speech, p. 206. [North Central Tennessee]. Brief, general comments on Appalachian speech and report of available data from Big South Fork study.

Huber, Patrick J. 1994. “Redneck: A Short Note from American Labor History.” American Speech 69.106-10. Argues that the term for a working-class, rural Southerner arose in the unionization of Appalachian coal fields in the 1920s and 1930s, possibly from the red handkerchiefs that organized miners wore.

Hunter, Edwin R. 1925. “The American Colloquial Idiom, 1830-1860.” Chicago: University of Chicago Ph.D. dissertation. Based on, among others, work of Joseph G. Baldwin, William A. Caruthers, David Crockett, John Pendleton Kennedy, A. B. Longstreet, William Gilmore Simms, William T. Thompson, and Thomas Bangs Thorpe.

Hurst, Sam N. 1929. “Mountain Speech.” The Mountains Redeemed: The Romance of the Mountains, pp. 32-34. Appalachia, Va.: Hurst and Company. Comments on archaicness, aptness of expression, and exactness of logic of Southern mountain speech.

Hurst, Sharon Elaine. 1982. “Appalachian Words.” Smokies Heritage Book I, 98-99. Gatlinburg, Tenn.: Crescent.

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Inge, M. Thomas. 1977. “The Appalachian Backgrounds of Billy de Beck’s Snuffy Smith.” Appalachian Journal 4.120-32. Pp. 122-23, discusses George Washington Harris as primary source of de Beck’s portrayal of Snuffy Smith’s speech.

Ivey, Mike. 1986. “A Rose by Another Name is a Damned Brier.” Appalachian Heritage 14.3.

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Jackson, Sarah E. 1975. “Unusual Words, Expressions, and Pronunciation in a North Carolina Mountain Community.” Appalachian Journal 2.148-60. [Ashe County, western North Carolina]. Unusual usages, idioms, names, and pronunciations collected by an outsider.

Jennings, Kathy. 1998. “White like Me: A Confession on Race, Gender, and Class.” Appalachian Journal 25.150-74. A testimonial about dialect pride and stigmatization by an East Tennessean.

Jones, Loyal and Jim Wayne Miller. 1992. “Glossary of Mountain Speech.” Southern Mountain Speech, 63-120. Berea, Ky.: Berea College Press.

Jones, Mabel Jean. 1973. “The Regional English of the Former Inhabitants of Cades Cove in the Great Smoky Mountains.” Knoxville: University of Tennessee Ph.D. dissertation. Abstract in Dissertation Abstracts International 34.5146A. [5 elderly natives, Blount County, East Tennessee]. Study of pronunciation (mostly of vowels) and grammar (mostly of verb principal parts) of ex-inhabitants of Cades Cove area.

Jones, Patricia Smith. 1998. “Dialect as a Deterrent to Cultural Stripping: Why Appalachian Migrants Continue to Talk That Talk.” Journal of Appalachian Studies 1.253-61. [Eastern Kentucky]. Discusses how speakers from Appalachia maintain their culturally rooted, non-standard English after moving from the Kentucky mountains to Dayton, Ohio, to find work.

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Kahn, Ed. 1965. “Hillbilly Music: Source and Resource.” Journal of American Folklore 78.257-66. On origin and diffusion of “hillbilly.”

Kaimen, Audrey A. 1965. “The Southern Fiddling Convention—A Study: Part I Music and Musicians.” Tennessee Folklore Society Bulletin 31.7-16. [North Carolina. Virginia]. Includes comments on vocabulary.

Kardos, Andy. 1982-83. “What’s in a Place Name?” Milepost 4.2.1.

Kay, Donald. 1974. “British Influence on Kentucky Municipal Place Names.” Kentucky Folklore Record 20.9-13. Catalogs cities and towns in the state named after ones in Britain.

Kay, Donald. 1974. “Municipal British-Received Place Names in Tennessee.” Appalachian Journal 2.78-80. Catalogs cities and towns in the state named after ones in Britain.

Kegley, Mary B. 1985. “Names in the New River Valley (Virginia).” Proceedings New River Symposium April 11-13, 1985, Pipestem, West Virginia.

Kelly, Claire. 1961. “Comment on ‘Brief Lexical Notes’.” Kentucky Folklore Record 7.77-78. [Kentucky]. Comments on eight items in Woodbridge’s article (Kentucky Folklore Record 5: 107-10 (1959).

Kenny, Hamill. 1935. “‘To’ in West Virginia.” American Speech 10.314-15. Preposition equivalent to stative at and equivalent to with/under in phrase take a course to a professor.

Kenny, Hamill. 1945. West Virginia Place Names: Their Origin and Meaning, Including the Nomenclature of the Streams and Mountains. Piedmont, W.V.: Place Name Press.

Kephart, Horace. 1913. “The Mountain Dialect.” Our Southern Highlanders, 276-304. New York: Macmillan. Revised edition (1922), pp. 350-78. Reprinted in 1976 by University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville. [North Carolina, Tennessee mountains]. Informal, lay account of speech of Smoky Mountains; some phonology and grammar; mainly lexicon. Reviews: M. Bush. 1977. American Forests 83.38-39; W. K. McNeil. 1978. Journal of American Folklore 91.612-13; H. D. Shapiro. 1977. Book Forum 3.278-84.

Kephart, Horace. 1917. “A Word-List from the Mountains of Western North Carolina.” Dialect Notes 4.407-19. Extensive list, most items discussed in Kephart’s Our Southern Highlanders.

Kester, Barbara D. 1986. “Appalachian and Urban Grammatical Patterns: A Note on Standardized Tests.” Ohio University Working Papers in Linguistics and Language Teaching 8.58-62.

King, Edward. 1875 The Great South, Hartford, Conn.: American. Reprinted in 1972 and edited by W. Magruder Drake and Robert R. Jones. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press. Dialect-forms of expression--diet, pp. 784-91. Insightful comments on Southern linguistic habits by Northerner on extensive travel throughout region; includes many examples.

Krapp, George Philip. 1925. [“Rhetoric of Kentucky”]. The English Language in America, vol. 2, pp. 297-306. New York: Ungar. Discusses development of folk tradition of exuberant, exaggerated, and picturesque style in Kentucky and Old Southwest region in first half of 19th century.

Krumpelmann, John T. 1939. “West Virginia Peculiarities.” American Speech 14.155-56. A dozen lexical items.

Krumpelmann, John T. 1949. “Supplementing the Dictionary of American English.” American Speech 24.149-51. Twenty-one items from Col. David Crockett’s writings not recorded in DAE.

Kruse, Vernon David. 1972. “The Pronunciation of English in Kentucky, Based on the Records of the Linguistic Atlas of the North-Central States.” Chicago: Illinois Institute of Technology Ph.D. dissertation. Abstract in Dissertation Abstracts International 33.4388A. Describes vowels of Kentucky speech, using binary analysis; includes chapter on methods of fieldwork, informants, settlement history, and dialect areas.

Kurath, Hans. 1928. “The Origin of the Dialectal Differences in Spoken American English.” Modern Philology 25.385-95. Reviews forty years of research by scholars before the Linguistic Atlas and relates features of British pronunciations, especially postvocalic /r/, to Atlantic states; concludes pronunciation of lowland South derives primarily from Southeastern England and that of the Piedmont and mountain South from Scotland.

Kurath, Hans. 1949. A Word Geography of the Eastern United States. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. xii + 252 pp. Based on Linguistic Atlas of New England and Linguistic Atlas of the Middle and South Atlantic States, shows geographical, but not social, distribution of traditional vocabulary from Maine to South Carolina on 163 maps and subdivides Eastern states into eighteen primary dialect areas based on distinctive vocabulary patterns. First study of dialect geography of Atlantic states using Linguistic Atlas records and first conclusive demonstration of three principal Eastern dialect areas—Northern, Midland, and Southern—and their subareas. Reprinted in 1966. Reviews: E. B. Atwood. 1950. Word 6.194-97; E. B. Atwood. 1950. Geographical Review 40.510-12; C. Bonfante. 1951. American Anthropologist 53.103-05; A. L. Davis. 1950. Journal of English and Germanic Philology 49.431-32; E. Dieth. 1953. English Studies 34.122-26; N. E. Eliason. 1951. Modern Language Journal 66.487-89; H. M. Flasdieck. 1951. Anglia 70.335-36; L. Florez. 1952. Thesaurus 8.217-18; W. C. Greet. 1950. New York Times, p. 22 (Jan. 22); L. Grootaaers. 1954. Leuvense Bijdragen 44.17; S. B. Liljegren. 1952-53. Studia Neophilogica 25.193; R. I. McDavid, Jr. 1950. New York History 31.442-44; J. B. McMillan. 1951. Language 27.423-29; R. J. Menner. 1950. American Speech 15.122-26; F. Mosse. 1951. Bulletin de la Societee Linguistique de Paris 46.154-55; V. Pisane. 1952. Paideia 7.317-18; C. E. Reed. 1951. Modern Language Quarterly 12.245-47; H. L. Smith, Jr. 1951. Studies in Linguistics 9.7-12; A. Sommerfelt. 1954. Norsk Tidsskrift for Sprogvidenskap 17.564-66; C. K. Thomas. 1950. Quarterly Journal of Speech 36.262; J. N. Tidwell. 1954. Journal of American Folklore 67.222-23; H. Whitehall. 1950. Yale Review n.s. 39.556-58; R. M. Wilson. 1951. Year’s Work in English Studies 30.37.

Kurath, Hans. 1970. “English Sources of Some American Regional Words and Verb Forms.” American Speech 45.60-68. Compares data from Survey of English Dialects and other British sources with historical dictionaries of American English and Linguistic Atlas data for fourteen terms from farm life and four verb principal parts and finds “New England has preserved some words that were brought over from the East Midland, while Pennsylvania and the South owe some of their expressions to the North of England—if not to Scotland and to Ulster.”

Kurath, Hans. 1972. Studies in Area Linguistics. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. The Structure of the Upper South, pp. 46-51, Geographical perspectives on region’s speech, with emphasis on boundaries. Reviews: G. Gilbert. 1976. La Monda Lingvo-Problemo 6.56-61; M. F. Hopkins. 1975. Southern Speech Communication Journal 40.213-14; R. I. McDavid, Jr. 1971. American Speech 47.285-92; L. A. Pederson. 1975. Foundations of Language 12.609-13; R. Shuy. 1974. Language in Society 3.295-97; M. S. Whitley. 1975. Linguistics 161.109-20.

Kurath, Hans, and Raven I. McDavid, Jr. 1961. The Pronunciation of English in the Atlantic States. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. xi + 364 pp. 180 maps. Paperback edition 1982 published by University of Alabama Press. [Includes Maryland, West Virginia, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia]. Authoritative phonological demarcation of dialect areas based on field records of Linguistic Atlas of the Middle and South Atlantic States and Linguistic Atlas of New England interviews. Presents pronunciation of educated natives in a series of seventy synoptic charts of pronunciation of individual speakers, detailed descriptions of how specific words are pronounced throughout the Atlantic states, and 180 large maps that show distribution of various pronunciations of key words. Reviews: W. S. Avis. 1965. Canadian Journal of Linguistics 11.63-70; F. H. Beukema. 1967. Orbis 16.577-79; A. J. Bronstein. 1962. Quarterly Journal of Speech 68.440-41; R. M. Dorson. 1963. Ohio History 72.73-75; N. E. Eliason. 1962. South Atlantic Quarterly 61.121-22; T. Hill. 1962. Modern Language Review 58.624-25; S. J. Keyser. 1963. Language 39.303-16; L’Annee Sociologique. 1963. Ser. 3.531; Leuvense Bijdragen. 1963. 52.180-81; F. F. Lewis. 1962. Professional Geographer 14.35; J. Y. Mather. 1963. Review of English Studies 14.216-18; J. E. Medcalf. 1962. Notes and Queries n.s. 9.402-03; G. Scherer. 1962. Beitrage zur Geschichte der Deutschen Sprache und Literatur 84; A. W. Stanforth. 1963-64. Zeitschrift für Mundartforschung 30.374-75; B. Trnka. 1962. Philologica Pragensia 5.176-77; B. Trnka. 1962. Casopis pro Moderni Filologii 44.188-90; E. T. Uldall. 1962. Le Maitre Phonetique 117.29-31; W. Viereck. 1967. Lebende Sprachen 12.58-59; R. M. Wilson. 1963. Year’s Work in English Studies 42.51; K-H Wirzburger. 1966. Zeitschrift für Anglistik und Amerikanistik 4.215-16.

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Landrum, Louise M. 1930. “A Study of Kentucky Mountain Dialect Based on Lucy Furman’s Quare Women.” Lexington: University of Kentucky M.A. thesis. 74 pp. [Knott County]. Study of peculiarities of speech of Eastern Kentucky mountains.

Laughlin, Hugh C. 1944. “A Word-List from Buncombe County, North Carolina.” Publication of the American Dialect Society 2.24-27. [western North Carolina]. Glossary of items common to Buncombe County, North Carolina, and Logan County, Ohio.

Ledford, Ted Roland. 1977. “Folk Vocabulary of Western North Carolina: Some Recent Changes.” Appalachian Journal 3.277-84. [100 natives, ages 18-20, western North Carolina]. Investigates extent to which folk vocabulary is still known in four areas of terminology: the house, the farm, common animals, and food; finds “a striking loss of some local terms”; finds massive generational changes in folk vocabulary for house and farm items and for wild and domestic animals.

Ledford, Ted R. 2006. “Colonial Survivals in Appalachia Speech.” Encyclopedia of Appalachia, ed. by Rudy Abramson and Jean Haskell, 1014. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press.

Leonard, Kimberly Sue. 1985. “Influence of Appalachian Dialect on Academic Expections.” Boone, N.C.: Appalachian State University M.A. thesis.

Lippi-Green, Rosina. 1998. “Hillbillies, Rednecks, and Southern Belles: The Language Rebels,” English with an Accent; Language, Ideology, and Discrimination in theh United States, 202-16. London: Routledge. Through anecdotes and the mental maps of dialect regions, explores the dynamics of dialect negative stereotypes of the American South as held by both non-natives and natives of the region.

Long, Julia Smith. 1983. “Effects of Socio-Dramatic Play on Language Development of Rural Appalachian Kindergarten High-Potential Children.” Tampa: University of South Florida Ph.D. dissertation. Dissertation Abstracts International 45.148A. Based on eighty kindergarteners.

Lunsford, Bascom Lamar. 1975. It Used to be: Memories of Bascom Lamar Lunsford, ed. by Mildred Frances Thomas. N.p.: n.p. Typescript on deposit at Appalachian Library, Appalachian State University. Pp. 156-79,  “Provincial Speech.” 

Lyman, Dean B. 1936. “Idioms in West Virginia.” American Speech 11.63. Six miscellaneous items.

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McAtee, W. L. 1957. “Folk Names of Birds in Kentucky.” Kentucky Warbler 33.27-37. Lists common, folk, and scientific names for birds in state.

McDavid, Raven I., Jr. 1958. “The Dialects of American English.” The Structure of American English, by W. Nelson Francis, pp. 480-543. New York: Ronald Press. Excellent introduction to regional dialects of Atlantic states, detailing causes and development of dialect differences and chronicling formal study of regional dialects by Linguistic Atlas of the United States and Canada projects. Presents characteristic pronunciation, vocabulary, morphology, and syntax of principal and subsidiary dialect areas. Includes brief discussion of social class dialects and influence of foreign-language communities, including French, German, and African, on Southern English.
McDavid, Raven I., Jr. 1971. “What Happens in Tennessee?” Dialectology: Problems and Perspectives, ed. by Lorraine Hall Burghardt, pp. 119-29. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Department of English. Discusses cultural and historical background for proposed linguistic research in Tennessee and identifies crucial linguistic variables to investigate.

McDavid, Raven I., Jr., William A. Kretzschmar, Jr., et al., eds. 1982-86. Linguistic Atlas of the Middle and South Atlantic States and Affiliated Projects: Basic Materials. Microfilm MSS on Cultural Anthropology 68.360-64, 69.365-69, 71.375-80. Chicago: Joseph Regenstein Library, University of Chicago. Includes field records of Linguistic Atlas of the Middle and South Atlantic States interviews from Maryland, District of Columbia, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida and with Gullah interviews conducted by Lorenzo Dow Turner.

McDavid, Raven I., Jr., and Virginia Glenn McDavid. 1952. “h before Semivowels in the Eastern United States.” Language 28.41-62. Initial consonants in whip, whetstone, wheelbarrow, whinny, wharf, whoa, and humor in atlas records; includes Maryland, Virginia, West Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and East Georgia.

McDavid, Raven I., Jr., and Virginia G. McDavid. 1964. “Plurals of Nouns of Measure in the United States.” Studies in Languages and Linguistics in Honor of Charles C. Fries, ed. by Albert H. Marckwardt, pp. 271-301. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan English Language Institute. 12 maps. Examines distribution of zero plurals of seven nouns (including foot, pound, and bushel) in Linguistic Atlas of New England, Linguistic Atlas of the Middle and South Atlantic States, Linguistic Atlas of the Noth Central States, and Linguistic Atlas of the Upper Midwest data; finds regional variation more significant than social variation and no black-white differences at all.

McDavid, Raven I., Jr. and Virginia G. McDavid. 1973. “The Folk Vocabulary of Eastern Kentucky.” Lexicography and Dialect Geography: Festgabe for Hans Kurath, ed. by Harald Scholler and John Reidy, pp. 147-64. Wiesbaden: Franz Steiner Verlag. Same as Zeitschrift für Dialektologie und Linguistik heft 9. 13 maps. Analyzes distribution of Midland and Southern vocabulary in Eastern Kentucky, using data from Linguistic Atlas of the North Central States records made in 1950s.

McDavid, Raven I., Jr. and Virginia G. McDavid. 1986. “Kentucky Verb Forms.” Language Variety in the South: Perspectives in Black and White, ed. by Michael Montgomery and Guy Bailey, pp. 264-93. University: University of Alabama Press. Details social and regional distribution of variant principal parts for thirty-eight strong verbs among Linguistic Atlas of the North Central States informants in Kentucky; compares patterns to Linguistic Atlas of the Middle and South Atlantic States and Linguistic Atlas of New England data.

McDavid, Raven I., Jr., et al., eds. 1976-79. “Kentucky. Linguistic Atlas of the North Central States.” Manuscripts on Cultural Anthropology Series XXXVIII, no. 206. Chicago: University of Chicago.  Field records of phonetically transcribed responses of informants to the atlas survey.

McDavid, Virginia Glenn. 1958. “Verb Forms of the North Central States and Upper Midwest.” Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Ph.D. dissertation. Includes Kentucky data.

McDavid, Virginia G[lenn]. 1977. “The Social Distribution of Selected Verb Forms in the Linguistic Atlas of the North Central States.” James B. McMillan: Essays in Linguistics by His Friends and Colleagues, ed. by James C. Raymond and I. Willis Russell, pp. 41-50. University: University of Alabama Press. Examines principal parts for ten strong verbs in Linguistic Atlas of the North Central States; finds “a generally lower use of standard forms” and “a higher use of relic forms” in Kentucky.

McDonald, Richard R., and Walburga von Raffler-Engel. 1975. “A Semantic Analysis of Some Religious Terms of a Snake-Handling Sect in Appalachia.” Views on Language, ed. by Reza Ordoubadian and Walburga von Raffler-Engel, pp. 182-91. Murfreesboro: Middle Tennessee State University. Based on research in four Pentecostal churches in Tennessee, studies terminology used in the Pentecostal experience called “anointing.”

McGreevy, John C. 1977. “Breathitt County, Kentucky Grammar.” Chicago: Illinois Institute of Technology Ph.D. dissertation. Abstract in Dissertation Abstracts International 38.5437A. [9 teenagers, 11 adults, Eastern Kentucky]. Finds no social class correlation with twenty-three grammatical and phonological features, thus concluding that “Breathitt County is a homogeneous speech community.”

McMeekin, Clark. 1957. Old Kentucky Country. New York: Duell, Sloan and Pearce. Pp. 149-50 on dialect.

Mallinson, Christine. 2002. “The Regional Accommodation of African American English: Evidence from a Bi-Ethnic Mountain Enclave Community.” Raleigh: North Carolina State University thesis. [Western North Carolina]. Examines speech of three generations of African Americans living in a small community, concluding that “earlier African American speech accommodated to local dialect norms,” but that also there has been “persistent substrate influence” in its history.

Mallinson, Christine. 2006. “The Dynamic Construction of Race, Class, and Gender through Language Practice among Women in a Black Appalachian Community.” Raleigh: North Carolina State University dissertation.  Abstract in Dissertation Abstracts International. Based on a field study in the black Southern Appalachian mountain community of Texana, North Carolina, using evidence from naturalistic observation and interviews with residents to examine the social and linguistic habits of two groups of four women in the community. 

Mallinson, Christine, Bridget Anderson, and Neal Hutcheson. 2000. “If These Hills could Talk: Speech in the Great Smoky Mountains.” Language Magazine 2 (July-August), 40-43.

Mallinson, Christine, and Becky Childs. 2004. “The Interaction of Regional and Ethnic Identity: African American English in Appalachia.” Journal of Appalachian Studies 7.129-42.

Mallinson, Christine, and Becky Childs. 2005. “Communities of Practice in Sociolinguistic Description: African American Women’s Language in Appalachia.” University of Pennsylvania Working Papers in Linguistics 10.2.1-14. Compares two groups of African American women who form contrasting friendship groups and finds that they differ in morphosyntax but not in phonology.

Mallinson, Christine, and Walt Wolfram. 2002. “Dialect Accommodation in a Bi-Ethnic Mountain Enclave Community: More Evidence on the Development of African American English.” Language in Society 31.743-75. [Western North Carolina]. Examines speech of three generations of African Americans living in a small community, concluding that earlier African American speech accommodated to local dialect norms, but that also there has been persistent substrate influence in its history.

Mandrell, Liz. 1998. “Acccent-uate the Positive,” Appalachian Heritage 26.4.15-18. A testimonial.

Mathews, Mitford McLeod. 1931. “Western and Southern Vernacular.” The Beginnings of American English: Essays and Comments, pp. 113-22. Chicago: University of Chicago. Reprinted in 1963, 1973. Discusses and compiles short list of tall talk associated with David Crockett and his like; reprints early Sherwood word-lists.

Matthias, Virginia P. 1946. “Folk Speech of Pine Mountain, Kentucky.” American Speech 21.188-92. [Southeastern Kentucky]. Glossary, with explanatory notes, of twenty-seven terms observed in two summers in the Kentucky mountains.

Maurer, David W. 1949. “The Argot of the Moonshiner.” American Speech 24.3-13. Glossary of a hundred items, prefaced by comments on manufacture and prevalence of illegal whisky in Kentucky.

Maurer, David W. 1974. Kentucky Moonshine. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky. The Argot of the Craft, pp. 105-11; Glossary, pp. 113-27. Reviews: Anonymous. 1975. Journal of Southern History 41.284-85; C. S. Guthrie. 1975. Kentucky Folklore Record 21.2.63-64; L. Pederson. 1979. American Speech 54.52-55.

Maurer, David W. 1981. Language in the Underworld. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky. 417 pp. Includes scattered Southern material, including chapter on Kentucky moonshiner argot (pp. 370-80) revised and expanded from preceding item.

Mayo, Margot. 1952. “Kentucky Talk.” Promenade 8.71.

Mayo, Margot. 1953. “More Kentucky Talk.” Promenade 8.8.1

Mead, Martha Norburn. 1942. Asheville ... in Land of the Sky. Richmond, Va.: Dietz Press. [western North Carolina]. Pp. 59-60, comments on language.

Medford, W. Clark. 1966. “How Our Mountain Speech Became So Colorful.” Great Smoky Mountain Stories and Sun over Ol’ Starlin, pp. 65-67. Waynesville, N.C.: privately published. [western North Carolina]. Says early mountain residents often crafted new words to meet immediate needs, and lists local idioms and figures of speech not acknowledged by dictionaries.

Mencken, Henry Louis. 1936. The American Language. Fourth edition. New York: Knopf. 769 pp. Supplement One, 1945. 739 pp.; Supplement Two, 1948. 890 pp. One volume edition abridged by Raven I. McDavid, Jr., with assistance of David W. Maurer, 1963. xxv + 777 pp. Encyclopedic work synthesizing lifetime of reading and correspondence on host of topics from regional dialects to American naming practices and British-American differences. Bibliography in footnotes includes wide range of popular and scholarly articles in local magazines and newspapers. Reviews: W. Card. 1963. College English 25.230-31; A. Duckert. 1964. Names 12.123-26; W. C. Greet. 1965. American Speech 40.58-61; R. Howren. 1965. Philological Quarterly 44.133-35; L. A. Pederson. 1965. Orbis 14.63-74; R. M. Wilson. 1965. Year’s Work in English Studies 44.63-64; R. W. Wilson. 1964. Canadian Journal of Linguistics 10.70-72; H. B. Woolf. 1966. English Studies 47.102-18.

Miles, Celia H. 1980. “Selected Verb Features in Haywood County, North Carolina: A Generational Study.” Indiana, Pa.: Indiana University of Pennsylvania Ph.D. dissertation. Abstract in Dissertation Abstracts International 41.2089A. [30 speakers, ages 10-75, western North Carolina]. Studies retention of older verb forms such as a-prefixing and variation in principal parts of twenty-four irregular verbs in three generations and finds that “while the dialect is not preserving older forms to any large extent, it is maintaining a high degree of nonstandard usage in irregular verb forms.”

Miles, Emma Bell. 1905. “The Literature of a Wolf-Race.” The Spirit of the Mountains, pp. 172-78. Reprinted in 1976. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press. Essay on literary qualities of mountain speech; cites “wild and elemental poetry” and “terse and piquant proverbs” of mountaineers.

Miller, Jim Wayne. 1969. “The Vocabulary and Methods of Raising Burley Tobacco in Western North Carolina.” North Carolina Folklore 17.1.27-38. Explains terminology used in production and marketing of tobacco.

Miller, Jim Wayne. 1985. “Beaucoons of Words.” New York Times Magazine, Jan. 13, pp. 9-10. How people adjust their language to their purposes, with emphasis on Appalachia; essay on creativity and expressive derivatives in mountain speech, especially in the author’s native Western North Carolina.

Miller, Tracey Russell. 1973. “An Investigation of the Regional English of Unicoi County, Tennessee.” Knoxville: University of Tennessee Ph.D. dissertation. Abstract in Dissertation Abstracts International 34.5147A. [6 older natives, northeast Tennessee]. Describes phonetic characteristics and selection of relic vocabulary.

Miller, Zell. 1975. “Mountain Dialect.” The Mountains within Me, pp. 76-88. Toccoa, Ga.: Commercial. [north Georgia]. Autobiographical, anecdotal account of richness and archaicness of mountain speech; frequent comparison of usages of Chaucer and Shakespeare to fading usages in mountains.

Mitchell, Ruth D. 1963. “A Study of Smoky Mountain Regional Speech as Used in Lanier’s Tiger Lilies.” Columbia: University of South Carolina M.A. thesis. 117 pp. Detailed analysis of phonology, vocabulary, and grammar used in Lanier’s story set in East Tennessee and comparison of findings with linguistic research of Joseph Hall, Lester Berrey, Horace Kephart, James Tidwell, and other linguistic studies.

Mockler, William E. 1940. “Localisms.” American Speech 15.83. Nine miscellaneous items from mountains of West Virginia and Pennsylvania.

Mockler, William Emmett Morgan. 1955. “The Surnames of Trans-Allegheny Virginia: 1750-1800.” Columbus: Ohio State University Ph.D. dissertation. Abstract in Dissertation Abstracts International 16.960A. Investigates etymology and phonology of surnames of early West Virginia north of the Kanawha, based on official public records, and includes dictionary. Reprinted in 1973 as West Virginia Surnames: the Pioneers. Parsons, W.V.: West Virginia Dialect Society. 197 pp. Reviews: Raven I. McDavid, Jr. 1974. American Speech 49.149-51; Elsdon C. Smith. 1975. Names 23.53.

Mockler, William E. 1956. “Surnames of Trans-Allegheny Virginia, 1750-1800.” Names 4.1-17. Part II, Names 4.96-118 (1957). Based on preceding item.

Moffat, Adeline. 1891. “The Mountaineers of Middle Tennessee.” Journal of American Folklore 4.314-20. Describes mountain people, including some samples of speech, language of Cumberland Ridge area of Middle Tennessee.

Montell, William Lynwood. 1975. “Glossary.” Ghosts along the Cumberland: Death Lore in the Kentucky Foothills, pp. 217-20. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press. [South Central Kentucky]. Forty-six items.

Montell, William Lynwood. 1983. “Glossary.” Don’t Go up Kettle Creek: Verbal Legacy in the Upper Cumberlands, pp. 197-201. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press. [South Central Kentucky].

Montgomery, James R. 1956. “The Nomenclature of the Upper Tennessee River.” East Tennessee Historical Society Publications 28.46-57. Reprinted in East Tennessee Historical Society Publication 51.151-62 (1979). [northeast Tennessee]

Montgomery, Michael B. 1978. “Left Dislocation: Its Nature in Appalachian Speech.” Southeastern Conference on Linguistics Bulletin 2.55-61. [20 whites, southern West Virginia]. Using data from Wolfram and Christian 1976 Appalachian Speech study, shows functions and varieties of patterns in which left dislocation occurs.

Montgomery, Michael B. 1979. “A Discourse Analysis of Expository Appalachian English.” Gainesville: University of Florida Ph.D. dissertation. Abstract in Dissertation Abstracts International 40.5036A. [18 males, 22 females, ages 16-87, East Tennessee]. Studies distribution and discourse functions of grammatical and rhetorical devices such as left dislocation, deictic pronouns, and conjunctions.

Montgomery, Michael B. 1979. “The Discourse Organization of Explanatory Appalachian Speech.” Papers of the 1978 Mid-America Linguistics Conference, ed. by Ralph E. Cooley, et al., pp. 293-302. Norman: University of Oklahoma. Excerpt of preceding item. [18 males, 22 females, ages 16-87, East Tennessee]. Examines patterning of left dislocation and other syntactic patterns for presenting new information in discourse.

Montgomery, Michael B. 1980. “Inchoative Verbs in East Tennessee English.” Southeastern Conference on Linguistics Bulletin 4.77-85. [40 whites, East Tennessee]. Study of syntax and semantics of verbs go to, get to, and get to be.

Montgomery, Michael B. 1983. “The Functions of Left Dislocation in Spontaneous Discourse.” The Ninth LACUS Forum, ed. by John Morreall, pp. 425-32. Columbia, S.C.: Hornbeam Press. Excerpt of Montgomery Ph.D. dissertation showing subtleties of syntactic patterning of left dislocation.

Montgomery, Michael. 1988. “Davy Crockett, the Rhetoric of Tennessee Politics, and the Development of American English.” Tennessee Linguistics 8.1.14-25 (Winter).

Montgomery, Michael. 1988. “The Three Grand Dialects of Tennessee?” Touchstone: Magazine of the Tennessee Humanities Council 13.12-14. Examines evidence from the Linguistic Atlas of the Gulf States for the state to have three regional dialects corresponding to its political divisions.

Montgomery, Michael. 1989. “Choosing Between it and that.” Language Change and Variation, ed. by Ralph W. Fasold and Deborah Schiffrin, 241-55. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Analyzes variation in the discourse usage of the two pronouns, based on the author’s 1979 dissertation in East Tennessee.

Montgomery, Michael. 1989. “David Crockett and the Rhetoric of Tennessee Politics.” Crockett at Two Hundred: New Perspectives on the Man and the Myth, ed. by Michael Lofaro and Joe Cummings, 42-66. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press. Considers how the image, rhetoric, and fanciful language of Crockett have been used by later politicians in the state.

Montgomery, Michael. 1989. “English Language.” The Encyclopedia of Southern Culture, ed. by Charles Reagan Wilson and William Ferris, 761-67. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press. Overview essay on the history, geography, and status of the English of the American South.

Montgomery, Michael. 1989. “Exploring the Roots of Appalachian English.” English World-Wide 10.227-78. Comprehensive essay discussing settlement history of the Appalachian region and the methodology necessary for establishing connections between its speech and sections of the British Isles; weighs evidence for representative grammatical features having a Scotch-Irish heritage.

Montgomery, Michael. 1989. “The Roots of Appalachian English.” Methods in Dialectology, ed. by Alan R. Thomas, 480-91. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters. Outlines research project to compare verbal auxiliaries in Southern Appalachia, Ulster, and Scotland.

Montgomery, Michael. 1991. “The Roots of Appalachian English: Scotch-Irish or Southern British?” Journal of the Appalachian Studies Association, ed. by John Inscoe, 177-91. Johnson City, Tenn.: East Tennessee State University Center for Appalachian Studies and Services.

Montgomery, Michael. 1994. “The Contributions of Joseph Sargent Hall to Appalachian Studies.” Journal of the Appalachian Studies Association 6.89-98. Outlines career of the pioneering scholar and his work on the speech of the Smoky Mountains from the 1930s till his death in 1992.

Montgomery, Michael. 1994. “The Dictionary of Smoky Mountain English as a Cultural Resource.” Eric Document 373 565. Outlines ways in which the author’s dictionary can be a resource for teachers.

Montgomery, Michael. 1995. “Does Tennessee Have Three ‘Grand’ Dialects?: Evidence from the Linguistic Atlas of the Gulf States.” Tennessee Folklore Society Bulletin 57.69-84. Reprinted in Ted Olson and Anthony Cavender, eds. 2007. Tennessee Folklore: Selections from Seventy Years of Tennessee Folklore Society Bulletin. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press.  Examines evidence from the Linguistic Atlas of the Gulf States for the state to have three regional dialects corresponding to its three political “grand divisions.”

Montgomery, Michael. 1995. “How Scotch-Irish is Your English?” Journal of East Tennessee History 67.1-33. Revised version published in Journal of East Tennessee History 77 (supplement): 65-91. Explores the linguistic heritage of East Tennessee by discussing the extent to which it can be attributed to early settlers from Ulster.

Montgomery, Michael. 1997. “Making the Trans-Atlantic Link between Varieties of English: The Case of Plural Verbal -s.” Journal of English Linguistics 25.122-41. Examines continuities from Scotland to Ireland to Appalachia in the patterning of subject-verb concord with third-person-plural subjects. 
Montgomery, Michael. 1997. “The Scotch-Irish Influence on Appalachian English: How Broad? How Deep?” Ulster and North America: Transatlantic Perspectives on the Scotch-Irish, ed. by Curtis Wood and Tyler Blethen, 189-212. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press. Classifies forty grammatical features prevalent in the region and finds that a significant majority came from Ulster and Scotland rather than from England or from the British Isles in general.

Montgomery, Michael. 1998. “In the Appalachians They Speak Like Shakespeare.” Myths in Linguistics, ed. by Laurie Bauer and Peter Trudgill, 66-76. New York: Penguin. Identifies reasons why the popular belief that mountain English resembles that spoken by Shakespeare should be discounted. 

Montgomery, Michael. 1998. “Speech.” Tennessee Encyclopedia of History and Culture, ed. by Carroll Van West, 875-76. Nashville: Rutledge Hill Press. Brief note on the geography and features of the state’s varieties of English. Reprinted in 2002 at http: tennesseeencyclopedia.net

Montgomery, Michael. 1999. “A Superlative Complex in Appalachian English.” SECOL Review 23.1-14. Examines distinctive ways in which superlative degree of adjectives and adverbs are formed in Appalachian speech, especially with nongradable adjectives such as present participles that are subject to variable interpretation.

Montgomery, Michael. 2000. “The Idea of Appalachian Isolation.” Appalachian Heritage 28.2.20-31. Argues that the region has never been as isolated from the outside world as is it often alleged and discusses the implications of this for the region’s speech.

Montgomery, Michael. 2000. “Isolation as a Linguistic Construct.” Southern Journal of Linguistics 1.25-36. Argues that “isolation” is largely a simplistic, static construction by outsiders, that its validity is doubtful, and that it has not been applied consistently in sociolinguistic students of Appalachia and elsewhere.

Montgomery, Michael. 2000. “Myths: How a Hunger for Roots Shapes Our Notions about Appalachian English.” Now and Then: The Appalachian Magazine 17.2.7-13. Examines myths about the nature of Appalachia and its speech held by outsiders and many insiders as well.

Montgomery, Michael. 2003. “Joseph Hall: The Man and His Work.” Now and Then: The Appalachian Magazine 20.1.1-4. Biographical account of the scholar (1906-92) and his work on Smoky Mountain English.

Montgomery, Michael. 2004. “English Language.” High Mountains Rising, ed. by Richard Straw and Tyler Blethen, 147-64. Champaign: University of Illinois Press. Overview essay on the status and representative features of the region’s English.

Montgomery, Michael. 2004. “Grammar of Appalachian English.” Handbook of Varieties of English: Volume 3, ed. by Bernd Kortmann and Edgar W. Schneider, 37-72. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. Survey of major and minor grammatical features of Appalachian English, based primarily on the Smoky Mountains of Tennessee and North Carolina.

Montgomery, Michael. 2004. “Solving Kurath’s Puzzle: Establishing the Antecedents of the American Midland Dialect Region.” The Legacy of Colonial English: The Study of Transported Dialects, ed. by Raymond Hickey, 410-25. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Argues that the linguistic geographer Hans Kurath was unable to outline a Midland speech region (encompassing Appalachia) with confidence using evidence from his Linguistic Atlas of the United States and Canada project because his survey sought few grammatical items.

Montgomery, Michael. 2006. “Cratis Williams.” Encyclopedia of Appalachia, ed. by Rudy Abramson and Jean Haskell, 1032-33. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press.

Montgomery, Michael. 2006. “‘Hit’ll Kill You or Cure You, One’: The History and Function of Alternative one.” Language Variation and Change in the American Midland, ed. by Thomas E. Murray and Beth Lee Simon. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Analyzes the use of the pronoun placed after a pair of alternative words or phrases and explores three hypotheses for its derivation.

Montgomery, Michael. 2006. “Joseph Sargent Hall.” Encyclopedia of Appalachia, ed. by Rudy Abramson and Jean Haskell, 1016. Knoxville: University of Tennesse Press.

Montgomery, Michael. 2006. “Language.” Encyclopedia of Appalachia, ed. by Rudy Abramson and Jean Haskell, 999-1005. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press. Overview essay for encyclopedia section dealing with wide range of language topics in Appalachia, broadly defined.

Montgomery, Michael. 2006. “Moonshining Terminology.” Encyclopedia of Appalachia, ed. by Rudy Abramson and Jean Haskell, 1023. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press.

Montgomery, Michael. 2006. “Notes on the Development of Existential they.” American Speech 81.132-45. Argues that the form is inherited from Scotland and was brought by Scotch-Irish settlers to Appalachia and that it is not a derivation of existential there.

Montgomery, Michael. 2006. “Personal Names.” Encyclopedia of Appalachia, ed. by Rudy Abramson and Jean Haskell, 1025. Knoxville: University of Tennessss.

Montgomery, Michael. 2006. “Place Names.” Encyclopedia of Appalachia, ed. by Rudy Abramson and Jean Haskell, 1025-26. Knoxville: University of Tennesee Press.

Montgomery, Michael. 2006. “Speech Play.” Encyclopedia of Appalachia, ed. by Rudy Abramson and Jean Haskell, 1029-30. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press.

Montgomery, Michael. forthcoming. “A-Prefixing in Appalachian English: Archaism or Innovation?” American Speech. Explores variation in use of the prefix and argues that the constraints identified by Wolfram 1980 are not categorical.

Montgomery, Michael, and Curtis Chapman. 1992. “The Pace of Change in Appalachian English.” History of Englishes, ed. by Matti Rissanen, et al., 624-39. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. Examines variation in grammatical features (form of the existential, subject-verb concord, form of the relativizer) in existential clauses across three generations in the Smoky Mountains.

Montgomery, Michael, and Joseph S. Hall, eds. 2004. The Dictionary of Smoky Mountain English. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press. Comprehensive historical dictionary on the region’s English, with more than five thousand entries and copious citations.

Montgomery, Michael, and John M. Kirk. 2001. “‘My Mother, Whenever She Passed Away, She Had Pneumonia’: The History and Function of Punctual Whenever.” Journal of English Linguistics 29.234-49. Examines use of the subordinating conjunction to express a single event in the past and argues that it was brought to America by Scotch-Irish settlers from Ulster.

Mooney, James. 1889. “Folk-Lore of the Carolina Mountains.” Journal of American Folklore 2.95-104. [North Carolina]. Includes remarks on mountain dialect.

Mooney, Steve. 1991. “The Myth of Appalachia as Repository of Old, Middle, or Elizabethan English.” Journal of Kentucky Studies 8.53-58. Examines genesis of the myth of antique speech in the mountains, surveys its early development, and discusses the role of outsiders (particularly Northern mission workers and schoolteachers) in promoting it.

Mooney, Steve. 2006. “Specialized Language of Coal Mining.” Encyclopedia of Appalachia, ed. by Rudy Abramson and Jean Haskell, 1028-29. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press.

Morley, Margaret W. 1913. “The Speech of the Mountains.” The Carolina Mountains, pp. 171-81. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. [North Carolina]. Catalogs archaisms reminiscent of Shakespeare or Chaucer in mountain speech, “the most purely ‘American’” of varieties.

Morgan, Lucia C. 1967. “North Carolina Accents: Some Observations.” North Carolina Journal of Speech and Drama 1.1.3-8. Based on speech of college students native to state, discusses pronunciations and vocabulary, especially from Appalachians and Outer Banks, that author considers remnants of colonial speech.

Morgan, Lucia C. 1970. “The Status of /r/ among North Carolina Speakers.” Essays in Honor of Claude M. Wise, ed. by Arthur J. Bronstein, Claude L. Shaver, and C. Stevens, 167-86. New York: Speech Association of America. [120 whites, 15 blacks native to North Carolina, ages 5-87]. 21 maps. Analyzes regional and age differences in pronunciation of postvocalic /r/ within the state.

“Mountain Vocabulary.” 1932. Mountain Missionary, January.

“Mountain Words.” 1982. Smokies Heritage Book I, 66-67. Gatlinburg, Tenn.: Crescent.

Mull, J. Alex. n.d. “Mountain Yarns, Legends and Lore.” Mountain Dialect and Sayings, pp. 12-14. Banner Elk, N.C.: Pudding Stone Press.

Murray, Thomas E., and Beth Lee Simon. 1999. “Want + Past Participle in American English.” American Speech 74.240-64. Finds that the syntactic pattern (as “Do you want served”?) occurs overwhelmingly in the Midwest and in Southern Appalachia.

Murray, Thomas E., and Beth Lee Simon. 2002. “At the Intersection of Regional and Social Dialects: The Case of Like + Past Participle in American English.” American Speech 77.32-69. Finds the syntactic pattern heavily concentrated in West Virginia, Southeast Ohio, and Western Pennsylvania and attributes its historical source to Ulster and Scotland.

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Neely, Jack. 2004. “Parlez-Vous Knoxvillaise?: The Knoxville Accent, Whether It Exists or Not.” Metro Pulse Online 14.46 (November 11). <www.metropulse.com/dir_zinc/dir_2004/1446/t_gamut.

Neely, Jack. 2004. “Parlez-Vous Knoxvillaise?: The Knoxville Accent, Whether It Exists or Not.” Metro Pulse Online 14.46 (November 11). <www.metropulse.com/dir_zinc/dir_2004/1446/t_gamut.html>, Largely autobiographical essay on the diversity of accents in the city; considers how social, generational, personality, and other factors (rather than regional ones) account for its varieties of pronunciation.

Neitzel, Stuart. 1936. “Tennessee Expressions.” American Speech 11.373. Notes “Shakespearean phrases” poke, proud, admire, stob, as well as novel expressions in Cumberland Valley area.

Newton, Mary C. 1958. “A Comparative Study of the Dialect Vocabulary of East Tennessee and Western North Carolina Using Selected Words: A Report of a Special Study.” Maryville, Tenn.: Maryville College. [99 speakers, most natives, East Tennessee, western North Carolina]. Based on local questionnaires and on data from Linguistic Atlas, finds predominantly Midland usage but that education has little correlation with use and recognition of vocabulary; also finds some differences between North Carolina and Tennessee.

Nicholas, [J.] Karl. 1982. “Think You for the Wedding Rang.” Southeastern Conference on Linguistics Review 6.131-37. [77 whites, western North Carolina; 25 whites, Central North Carolina]. Finds raising of vowel before nasal in words like thank and sang is strong in lower working class mountain speech and is increasing in North Carolina Piedmont.

Nicholas, J. Karl. 2006. “Horace Kephart.” Encyclopedia of Appalachia, ed. by Rudy Abramson and Jean Haskell, 1017-18. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press.

Nickell, Joe. 1984. “Hillbilly Talk: Southern Appalachian Speech as Literary Dialect in the Writings of Mary Noailles Murfree.” Appalachian Heritage 12.3.37-45.

Nixon, Phyllis J. 1946. “A Glossary of Virginia Words.” Publication of the American Dialect Society 5.3-43. Preface by Hans Kurath. Based on 138 Virginia field records for the Linguistic Atlas of the Middle and South Atlantic States, notes geographical and social distribution of terms and gives thorough picture of Virginia usage; greatly supplements B. W. Green. Reviews: R. I. McDavid, Jr. 1947. Studies in Linguistics 5.21-24; B. J. Whiting. 1946. Publication of the American Dialect Society 6.44-46. Comments and additions by T. A. Kirby, W. L. McAtee, W. M. Miller, R. V. Mills, F. W. Palmer, H. H. Petit. 1947. Publication of the American Dialect Society 8.11-38.

Norman, Henderson D. 1910. “The English of the Mountaineer.” Atlantic 105.276-78. Shakespearean (archaic) expressions in the Cumberland Mountains.

North Carolina Department of Commerce. c1965. A Dictionary of the Queen’s English. Raleigh, North Carolina. 24 pp. [North Carolina]. Booklet for tourists with three short glossaries stressing archaic expressions still heard in the state, where English spoken is “not prose but metaphor.”

“North Carolina Word List.” 1918. Dialect Notes 5.18-20.

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O’Cain, Raymond K., and John B. Hopkins. 1977. “The Southern Mountain Vocabulary in the Low Country of South Carolina and Georgia.” An Appalachian Symposium: Essays Written in Honor of Cratis D. Williams, pp. 215-23. Boone, N.C.: Appalachian State University. Examines “the geographical distribution of the ten vocabulary items that were ... most frequently cited in early word lists of mountain speech” and finds them in coastal South Carolina; speculates whether their occurrence in there is due to common sources in England or to diffusion in colonial times.

Olmstead, George C. 1934. “Testimonies.” American Speech 9.236. Reports goober grabber in Chattanooga for “an Alabamian,” hairydick “maverick,” and Indian River chicken.

Orton, Harold, and Nathalia Wright. 1972. “Questionnaire for the Investigation of American Regional English: Based on the Work Sheets of the Linguistic Atlas of the United States and Canada.” Knoxville: University of Tennessee Department of English. Designed principally for the investigation of archaic Tennessee speech.

Osborne, Kelsie Ramey. 1949. “Analysis of Folk Speech of the Southern Hishlanders.” Los Angeles: University of Southern California M.A. thesis.

Owens, Bess Alice. 1931. “Folk Speech of the Cumberland.” American Speech 7.89-95. [Pikeville, Kentucky]. 116 terms that have “a Shakespeare flavor” collected around 1930.

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Parris, John. 1955. Roaming the Mountains. Asheville, N.C.: Citizen-Times. [western North Carolina]. Mountain idiom fading, pp. 21-23, Unusual expressions in mountains; Origin of mountain county names, pp. 179-82.

Parris, John. 1967. Mountain Bred. Asheville, N.C.: Citizen-Times. [western North Carolina]. A lavish of homespun names, pp. 26-27; Mountain idiom fading, pp. 120-22. Romance of mountain speech reflected in archaisms and placenames.

Parris, John. 1972. These Storied Mountains. Asheville, N.C.: Citizen-Times. [western North Carolina]. Flavorsome talk, pp. 23-24; Figures of speech and similes in mountain speech; Do tongue twisters still defy diction?, pp. 286-87.

Pearsall, Marion. 1966. “Communicating with the Educationally Deprived.” Mountain Life and Work 42.8-11 (Spring). Reprinted in F. S. Riddel, ed. 1974. Appalachia: Its People, Heritage, and Problems, pp. 55-62. Dubuque, IA: Kendall Hunt.

Pederson, Lee A. 1975. “Sourmilk.” American Speech 50.49. [Tennessee]. Reports a term for clabber having a primary-secondary stress pattern.

Pederson, Lee A. 1977. “The Dugout Dairy.” Tennessee Folklore Society Bulletin 43.88-89. [East Tennessee]. Notes several senses of word dairy, including reference to a room in a dugout area.

Pederson, Lee A. 1977. “Randy Sons of Nancy Whisky.” American Speech 52.112-21. [East Tennessee, north Georgia]. Shows how plentiful undocumented folk terms for illegal whiskey present problems for historical lexicographers and for semantic analysis.

Pederson, Lee A. 1981. “Hey, Lucy.” American Speech 56.63. [Jacksboro, Tennessee]. Points out difficulty of ordering senses in Linguistic Atlas of the Gulf States legendry, the anticipated dictionary component of the atlas.

Pederson, Lee A. 1981. “The Regional and Social Dialects of East Tennessee: A Preliminary Overview.” Linguistic Atlas of the Gulf States Working Paper, series one, no. 8. Microfiche no. 1187-89. Addendum to Pederson et al., eds. 1981. Linguistic Atlas of the Gulf States: The Basic Materials. 261 pp. Final report to National Council of Teachers of English Research Foundation. Published later as following item.

Pederson, Lee A. 1983. East Tennessee Folk Speech: A Synopsis. Bamberger Beiträge zur Englischen Sprachwissenschaft 12. Frankfurt/Main: Peter Lang. 254 pp. [70 natives of both races and several social classes]. Presents idiolect synopsis of 137 selected features in narrow phonetic transcription for each informant; analyzes pronunciation of phonemes, incidence of phonemes and morphological and lexical variants, and regional, subregional, and social factors in the area. Also includes chapters on settlement history and methodology. Review: E. Schneider. 1984. English World-Wide 5.130-32.

Pederson, Lee A., Susan Leas, Guy H. Bailey, and Marvin H. Bassett, eds. 1981. Linguistic Atlas of the Gulf States: The Basic Materials. Microform collection. Ann Arbor, Mich.: University Microfilms. Bank of 128,000 pages of raw data, summary, and background from over 1,100 recorded interviews totaling over 5,000 hours and conducted in eight Southern states. Although unedited and mostly in phonetic transcription, the largest single collection of data on Southern speech.

Pederson, Lee A., Susan Leas McDaniel, and Marvin H. Bassett, eds. 1986. The Linguistic Atlas of the Gulf States: A Concordance of Basic Materials. Ann Arbor, Mich.: University Microfilms. 152 microfiche of alphabetical concordance, two series of working papers, and other material.

Pederson, Lee A., Susan Leas McDaniel, Guy H. Bailey, and Marvin H. Bassett, eds. 1986. The Linguistic Atlas of the Gulf States, Volume 1: Handbook for the Linguistic Atlas of the Gulf States. Athens: University of Georgia Press. 376 pp. Reviews: J. B. McMillan. 1987. Alabama Review 40.157-58; W. Viereck. 1987. Journal of English Linguistics 20.255-57. Guide to the project in linguistic geography that surveyed over one thousand speakers in eight Southern states, including the Appalachian sections of Tennessee and Georgia; provides sociohistorical background to the region, detailed roster of speakers interviewed, and other elements necessary to understanding the material collected by the project.

Pederson, Lee. 1990-92. Linguistic Atlas of the Gulf States: Volume 4 (Regional Matrix); Volume 5 (Social Matrix); Volume 6 (Regional Pattern); Volume 7 (Social Pattern). Athens: University of Georgia Press. Tabulates and maps features collected by the project in eight Southern states, including East Tennessee and North Georgia.

Pendleton, Paul E. 1930. “How the ‘Wood Hicks’ Speak.” Dialect Notes 6.86-89. Words and phrases from Buckhannon, West Virginia.

Pennington, Martha. 1973. “A Phonology of the Speech of Floyd County, Georgia.” Penn Review of Linguistics 1.1-12. [northeast Georgia]. Detailed analysis of vowels in stressed syllables and sibilants and phonological processes affecting them.

Pennington, Martha Carswell. 1982. “The Story of ‘s’ or Everything You Always Wanted to Know about Sibilants but Were Afraid to Ask.” Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Ph.D. dissertation. Abstract in Dissertation Abstracts International 43.3585. [Rome, Georgia]. Investigates form and phonological and social distribution of sibilants in Rome area; finds that backing of some types of sibilants expresses “local and rural identity and solidarity, particularly among males,” that these sibilants “may be an expression of an American country-western image and so may be increasing in frequency.”

Perry, Louise Sublette. 1941. “A Study of the Pronoun ‘Hit’ in Grassy Branch, North Carolina.” Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University M.A. thesis. [62 speakers, ages 5-87, western North Carolina]. 58 pp. Says that aspirated variant of it appears most commonly in initial positions, after a pause, and in stressed and emphatic contexts, and it is used primarily by older and less-educated speakers.

Peterson, Betty. 1987. “Why They Talk That Talk: Language in Appalachian Studies.” English Journal 76.53-56.

Petit, Herbert H. 1947. “Terms in ‘A Word-List from Virginia and North Carolina [Publication of the American Dialect Society 6] Common in the Blue Grass Region of Kentucky’.” Publication of the American Dialect Society 8.21-23. Confirmation of findings of Woodard’s 1946 study by a Kentucky native.

Pollard, Mary O. 1915. “Terms from the Tennessee Mountains.” Dialect Notes 4.242-43. Twenty-four items from Gatlinburg; brief note on phonological and grammatical tendencies.

Preston, Dennis R. 1969. “Bituminous Coal Mining Vocabulary of the Eastern United States: A Pilot Study in the Collecting of Geographically Distributed Occupational Vocabulary.” Madison: University of Wisconsin Ph.D. dissertation. Abstract in Dissertation Abstracts International 39.3929-30A. Reprinted in 1973 as Publication of the American Dialect Society 59. 128 pp. [Alabama, Kentucky, Ohio, Virginia, West Virginia] Lexicon of 489 terms used by bituminous coal miners in nine states in Midland and Midwest regions. Finds that northern coal-mining areas preserve more British terms while southern areas have more native American ones. Review: K. Hameyer. 1980. Zeitschrift für Dialektologie und Linguistik 47.108-11.

Preston, Dennis R. 1996. “Where the Worst English is Spoken.” Focus on the USA, ed. by Edgar W. Schneider, 297-360. Amsterdam: Benjamins. Finds that Michiganders have a mental map of American dialects that contains a region vaguely corresponding to Appalachia (i.e. containing Kentucky and Tennessee) and suggests that counterparts in the Deep South have a much larger, more accurate map of the region.

Primer, Sylvester. 1891. “Dialectical Studies in West Virginia.” Publication of the Modern Language Association 6.3.161-70. Also published in Colorado College Studies 2.28-38. Pronunciation and a few notes on lexicon and grammar.

Puckett, Anita. 1992. “‘Let the Girls Do the Spelling and Dan will Do the Shooting’: Literacy, the Division of Labor, and Identity in a Rural Appalachian Community.” Anthropological Quarterly 65.137-47. Examines the gender-based division of reading and writing labor in a southeastern Kentucky community.

Puckett, Anita. 1995. “Speech Acts and Cultural Resistance in a Rural Eastern Kentucky Community.” Appalachia and the Politics of Culture: Journal of the Appalachian Studies Association 7, ed. by Elizabeth C. Fine.  111-20. Johnson City: East Tennessee State University, Center for Appalachian Studies and Services. Examines differences between natives and non-natives of Appalachia in interpreting the appropriateness of direct orders in a hierarchical work relationship and shows how these differences cause natives to be viewed as recalcitrant and uncooperative.

Puckett, Anita. 2000. “The Pronunciation of Appalachia.” Now and Then: The Appalachian Magazine 17.2.24-27. Compares two pronunciations of the name (with the third syllable sounded like “lay” vs. “latch”) in terms of their social usage and interpretation; says the second pronunciation is used primarily by natives of the region.

Puckett, Anita. 2000. Seldom Ask, Never Tell: Labor and Discourse in Appalachia. New York: Oxford University Press. Analyzes requesting, directing, and other conversational speech acts in southeastern Kentucky. Review: Michael Montgomery. 2002. Journal of Appalachian Studies 8.244-46.

Puckett, Anita. 2003. “The ‘Value’ of Dialect as Object: The Case of Appalachian English.” Pragmatics 13.539-49. Argues that dialect appreciation and preservation programs designed by academics commodify local dialects and distort their nature instead of presenting them in a way helpful to their speakers.

Puckett, Anita. 2004. “Identity, Hybridity, and Linguistic Ideologies of Racial Language in the Upper South.”  Linguistic Diversity in the South: Changing Codes, Practices and Ideologies, ed. by Margaret Bender, 120-37. Southern Anthropological Society Proceedings, no. 37. Athens: University of Georgia Press. Examines how discursive practices used by Melungeons and Scotch-Irish identity groups in Southern Appalachia ascribe value to the names they use for themselves.

Puckett, Anita. 2005. “Negotiating Rural Southern Mountain Speech.” Appalachian Cultural Competency: A Guide for Medical, Mental Health, and Social Service Professionals, ed. by Susan E. Keefe, 31-54. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press. Says that practitioners and other professionals who live in Southern Appalachia but who are unfamiliar with the language behavior of the vernacular native culture risk miscommunication, negative feelings, and withdrawal of interaction; focuses in particular on and illustrates for interactional rules for requesting and other conversational routines.

Puckett, Anita. 2006. “Language and Gender.” Encyclopedia of Appalachia, ed. by Rudy Abramson and Jean Haskell, 1018-19. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press.

Puckett, Anita. 2006. “Language Ideology.” Encyclopedia of Appalachia, ed. by Rudy Abramson and Jean Haskell, 1019-20. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press.

Puckett, Anita. 2006. “Melungeon.” Encyclopedia of Appalachia, ed. by Rudy Abramson and Jean Haskell, 1022-23. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press. On the origin and usage of the name.

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Qazilbash, Husain A. 1972. “Appalachia: People, Dialect, and Communication Problems.” Journal of Reading Behavior 5.14-25. [13 speakers from each of 9 states from New York to Alabama]. Claims that speech of Appalachian residents is a “restricted code” (as defined by social psychologist Basil Bernstein).

Qazilbash, Husain A. 1972. “A Dialect Survey of the Appalachian Region.” Tallahassee: Florida State University Ph.D. dissertation. Abstract in Dissertation Abstracts International 32.6085A. Also Eric Document 052 210. Same as National Center for Educational Research and Development Regional Research Report 4 (Atlanta) and as Final Report to Dept. of Health Education and Welfare (Appalachian Adult Education Demonstration Center, Morehead State University). [13 informants from each of 9 states from New York to Alabama]. Claims that rustic speakers “have a small functional vocabulary” and “misuse more words” than modern and cultured speakers and that “there is a distinct pattern or linguistic structure throughout the Appalachian Region without any sub-regional differences within the region.” Pp. 383-421, Alphabetized list “Colloquial Terms and Their Explorations.”

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Raine, James W. 1924. “Mountain Speech and Song.” The Land of Saddle-Bags, pp. 95-124. New York City: Council of Women for Home Missions. Kentucky mountain speech. Classic defense of mountain speech as preserving usages from Renaissance England and exposition of its creative and artistic character.

Raine, James Watt. 1924. “The Speech of the Land of Saddle-Bags.” Quarterly Journal of Speech 10.230-37. Reports Kentucky localisms and calls for more respect for area’s speech patterns, which “is more closely akin to Elizabethan English than any other dialect spoken today.”

Ray, George Bryan. 1983. “An Ethnography of Speaking in an Appalachian Community.” Seattle: University of Washington Ph.D. dissertation. Abstract in Dissertation Abstracts International 44.2624A. [Jackson County, Kentucky]. Study of speech used in eight leisure and religious speech events in six domestic and public speech situations.

Reed, Louis. 1967. “Family Names.” Warning in Appalachia: A Study of Wirt County, West Virginia, pp. 15-32. Morgantown: West Virginia University Library.

Reese, James Robert. 1975. “The Myth of the Southern Appalachian Dialect as a Mirror of the Mountaineer.” Voices from the Hills: Selected Readings on Southern Appalachia, ed. by Robert J. Higgs and Ambrose N. Manning, pp. 474-92. New York: Ungar. Questions existence of single identifiable Appalachian dialect and claims heterogeneity of mountain speech.

Reese, James Robert. 1977. “Variation in Appalachian English: A Study of the Speech of Elderly, Rural Natives of East Tennessee.” Knoxville: University of Tennessee Ph.D. dissertation. Abstract in Dissertation Abstracts International 38.7304-05A. [12 older whites, northeast Tennessee]. Investigates degree of “systematic variation” in lexicon, syntax, morphology, and phonology of sociologically similar informants; finds extensive variation among the speakers, but “no general consistent sub-patterns of agreement” between areas of linguistic structure.

Reese, James Robert. 1978. “Randomly Distributed Dialects in Appalachian English: Syntactic and Phonological Variation in East Tennessee.” Southeastern Conference on Linguistics Bulletin 2.67-76. [16 elderly whites, northeast Tennessee]. Claims existence of “randomly distributed dialects” by finding “four distinct dialectal linguistic systems” in speech of sixteen sociologically and geographically similar informants.

Reese, James Robert. 1981. “Appalachian English: Reality and Myth.” Cross-Reference 1.3.1,6-7. Report on series of public forums in Johnson County, Tennessee, on issues related to Appalachian English. Reprinted in Tennessee Linguistics 1.1.35-36.

Reese, James Robert. 1981. “Goals for the Collection and Use of Appalachian Oral Materials in the 1980s.” Appalachia/America: Proceedings of the 1980 Appalachian Studies Conference, ed. by Wilson Somerville, pp. 230-35. Johnson City, Tenn.: Appalachian Consortium Press. Argues that wealth of oral materials collected by scholars in Appalachia needs to be catalogued, analyzed, and adapted to classroom use to answer questions about Appalachian culture and language.

Rehder, John. 2004. “Folk Speech: Terms and Sayings.” Appalachian Folkways, 289-300. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. Non-scholarly survey by a geographer; includes glossary (295-300).

Reinhardt, J. M. 1926. “Speech and Balladry of the Southern Highlands.” Quarterly Journal of the University of North Dakota 16.139-47. Discusses archaism, conservatism, and expressiveness of Southern Appalachian speech.

Rennick, Robert M. 1985. “Traditional Accounts of Some Eastern Kentucky Place Names.” Appalachian Notes 13.2-17.

Rennick, Robert M. 1987. “Some Pike County Names: Leonard Roberts’ Contributions to the Kentucky Place Name Survey.” Appalachian Heritage 15.2.51,55.

Rennick, Robert M. 1988. “Place Name Derivations are not Always What They Seem.” Appalachian Heritage 16.1.50-62. [Kentucky].

Richards, Melinda Lou. 2001. “An Examination of Change in Selected Vowel Structures of Three Generations of Native Appalachian Speakers.” Abstract in Dissertation Absgtracts International 62.2094A. Examines eight vowel features in three generations of an East Tennessee mountain community, finding few differences between younger and middle-aged speakers in conversational or other speech styles.

Roberts, Eleanor M. 1977. “The Piedmont Dialect.” Sandlapper 10.2.11. [northwest South Carolina]. Claims “old English” still spoken in Piedmont area of South Carolina and that the English of settlers remains unchangd in the modern day; says blacks and Scots had only marginal lexical influence on the state’s speech.

Roberts, Leonard. 1952. “Additional Exaggerations from East Kentucky.” Midwest Folklore 2.163-66. Ninety-four items listed in order “to show some insight into the way of life in the hilly, dissected third of the state, where the hills rise from choked valleys on a forty-five degree angle to sharp ridges.”

Roberts, Leonard. 1962. “Additional Notes on Archer Taylor’s On Troublesome Creek.” Kentucky Folklore Record 8.142-44. [Kentucky]. Explains six terms cited by Woodbridge that come from James Still’s fiction, including bunty bird and corn capping.

Rogers, E. G. 1950. “Figurative Language the Folkway.” Tennessee Folklore Society Bulletin 16.71-75. Catalogs folk similes in eleven classes and presents list of metaphors, synecdoches, and hyperboles.

Rogers, E. G. 1953. “Some East Tennessee Figurative Exaggerations.” Tennessee Folklore Society Bulletin 19.36-40. List of ninety exaggerations heard in East Tennessee.

Rosenberg, Bruce A. 1970. The Art of the American Folk Preacher. New York: Oxford University Press. Based on fieldwork in North Carolina, Virginia, Kentucky, and California.

Rudd, Mary J. 1976. “The Use of Third Person Reference in Multi-Party Conversations in an Appalachian Community.” Anthropological Linguistics 18.349-59. [eastern Kentucky]. Explores functions of conversational technique in which reference made to a third party constrains that party from speaking, while allowing other parties to participate in conversation; suggests this technique varies in frequency and normative character according to region.

Rushing, Nellie Georgia. 1929. “A Word Study of Mary Noailles Murfree’s Stories of the Tennessee Mountains.” Chicago: University of Chicago M.A. thesis. Analyzes and compiles regional vocabulary from seven of Murfree’s novels.

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Scarbrough, George. 1976. “My Mother Language, My Father Tongue.” Appalachian Journal 4.28-34. Native Tennessean’s contrast of his mother’s and his father’s speech habits from his childhood.

Schilling-Estes, Natalie. 1995. “Extending Our Understanding of the /d/ -> /z/ Rule.” American Speech 70.291-302. Examines the variable consonant rule for Appalachian, African American, and Outer Banks speakers from a lexical phonological point of view.

Schmidt, Ronald G., and William S. Hooks. 1994. “Glossary.” Whistle over the Mountain: Timber, Track and Trails in the Tennessee Smokies. Graphicom.

Schneider, Edgar W. 1994. “Appalachian Vocabulary: Its Character, Sources, and Distinctiveness.” Verhandlungen des Internationalen Dialektologenkongresses Bamberg 1990 Band 3, ed. by Wolfgang Viereck, 498-512. Stuttgart: Steiner. Thorough study of the mountain lexicon as presented in Paul Fink’s B its of Mountain Speech.

Schrock, Earl F. Jr. 1971. “An Examination of the Dialect in This Day and Time.” Tennessee Folklore Society Bulletin 37.31-39. [Sullivan County, Tennessee]. Examines validity of representation of dialect in Anne Armstrong’s novel by comparing lexical and grammatical features in the novelist’s work to the author’s own ongoing research in the area in the 1970s. Reprinted in Robert J. Higgs and Ambrose N. Manning, eds. 1977. Voices from the Hills: Selected Readings of Southern Appalachia, 460-73. New York: Ungar.

Schulman, Steven A. 1973. “Logging Terms from the Upper Cumberland River.” Tennessee Folklore Society Bulletin 39.35-36. [western Kentucky]. Twenty-seven terms from the logging industry.

Scypes, George S. 1888. “Notes of ‘We-uns’ and ‘You-uns’.” Century 36.799. Says both pronouns were used in Virginia in 1860s.

Sex, S. Dean. 1984. Hill’n Holler Expressions: A Dictionary of West Virginia Hillbilly Talk. Cairo, W.V.: Little Pink Pig. 16 pp.

Shearin, Hubert G. 1911. “An Eastern Kentucky Dialect Word-List.” Dialect Notes 3.537-40. 150 items, many in modified phonetic transcription.

Shearin, Hubert G. 1927. “The Speech of Our Fathers.” Kentucky Folklore and Poetry Magazine 2.2.6-7. [Kentucky]. Discounts myth of Elizabethan English but says local speech is integral to people’s heritage and will flourish despite quixotic English teachers; appends list of archaisms.

Shott, Hugh Ike, II. 1951. “A Lexical Study of the Vocabulary of Alberta Pierson Hannum’s Regional Novel Thursday April.” Charlottesville: University of Virginia M.A. thesis. Identifies dialect and unusual words used by Western North Carolina novelist and cross-references them to eight dictionaries.

Sizer, Miriam M. 1933. “Christian Names in the Blue Ridge of Virginia.” American Speech 8.2.34-37. Finds “little conscious attempt to preserve in Christian names the family relationship of different individuals.”

Skinner, James C. 1986. “Nicknames, Coal Miners and Group Solidarity.” Names 34.134-45. [33 white males, 6 white females]. Surveys prevalence and functions of nicknames at four West Virginia and two Southwest Virginia coal mines.

Slone, Verna Mae. 1983. How We Talked. Pippa Passes, Ky.: Pippa Valley Printing. 135 pp.

Smith, C. Alphonse. 1891. “The Dialect of Miss Murfree’s Mountaineer.” Christian Advocate 52.3.12-13 (Jan. 17).

Smith, Charles Forster. 1886. “Southern Dialect in Life and Literature.” Southern Bivouac 4.343-50. Discusses a visit to the mountains of East Tennessee to ascertain the authenticity of Mary Murfree’s dialect in her novels; finds some terms not in her works and says that some terms she uses could not be found.

Smith, Charles Forster. 1886. “On Southernisms.” Transactions of the American Philological Association 17.34-46. Annotated wordlist of thirty-eight items, with extensive etymological notes.

Smith, Emma Deane Trent. 1987. East Tennessee’s Lore of Yesteryear. Whitesburg, Tenn.: privately published.

Snyder, Bob. 1978. “Colonial Mimesis and the Appalachian Renascence.” Appalachian Journal 5.340-49. Pp. 346-47, says liveliness and freshness of Appalachian writers comes from these qualities in the region’s speech patterns.

Sohn, Katherine K. 2000. “Whistlin’ and Crowin’ Women of Appalachia: Literacy Development since College.” Indiana University of Pennsylvania Ph.D. dissertation. Abstract in Dissertation Abstracts Internatiional 60.3649A. Case studies of three nontraditional female college graduates from an Eastern Kentucky Appalachian community, examining whether and how college education changes their literacy habits.

Spurlock, John Howard. 1980. He Sings for Us: A Sociolinguistic Analysis of the Appalachian Subculture and of Jesse Stuart as a Major American Author. Lanham, Md.: University Press of America. x + 180 pp. Study of major literary elements in poetry and fiction of the Kentucky writer.

Starnes, Val W. 1888. [Comment]. Century 36.799. Cites use of we-uns and you-uns in South Carolina, Tennessee, and by “piney-wood tackeys” in Georgia; also notes your-all and our-all.

Steadman, John M., Jr. 1916. “Old, Early, and Elizabethan English in the Southern Mountains: Addenda and Corrigenda to an Article by J. H. Combs.” Dialect Notes 4.350-52. Critique of Combs’ 1916 study.

Stewart, Kathleen Claire. 1987. “Narrative Appalachia.” Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Ph.D. dissertation. Abstract in Dissertation Abstracts International 48.429A. [Raleigh County, West Virginia]. Based on participant observation, explores the “relational logic of a ‘narrative culture’ through a variety of story genres in their performance and interpretive contexts.”

Stewart, William A. 1967. “Language and Communication in Southern Appalachia.” Washington, D.C.: Center for Applied Linguistics. 43 pp. Eric Document 012 026. Reprinted in David L. Shores, ed. 1972. Contemporary English: Change and Variation, 107-22. Philadelphia: Lippincott. Identifies two major nonstandard dialects in Apppalachia, one white and one black, and discusses their social status and pedagogical programs for dialect speakers in Appalachian schools.

Stewart, William A. 1969. “Language Teaching Problems in Appalachia.” Florida Foreign Language Reporter 7.1.58-59,161. Excerpt of preceding item.

Stewart, William A. 1971. “Language Learning and Teaching in Appalachia.” Appalachia 4.8.27-34. Discusses variation in Appalachian speech, social status of white and black varieties, and barriers to effective language teaching in the region because of misunderstanding of cultural and linguistic basis of many educational problems.

Still, James A. 1929-30. “Place Names in the Cumberland Mountains.” American Speech 5.113. [Eastern Kentucky]

Still, James A. 1930. “Christian Names in the Cumberlands.” American Speech 5.306-07. Principal sources of given names and unusual naming practices. [Eastern Kentucky]

Still, James. 1988. “Hunting for Hindman: An Exercise in the Use of the Vernacular.” Appalachian Heritage 21.13-14. [Eastern Kentucky]

Stuart, Jesse. 1959. “Up the Branch.” This is the South, ed. by Robert West Howard. 221-28. Chicago: Rand McNally. [Eastern Kentucky]Comments on speech by the novelist.

Stubbs, Thomas M. 1959-70. “Mountain-wise.” Georgia Magazine. Thirteen selections of monthly column that deal with language use in North Georgia mountains.

Sutherland, E. J. 1960. “Folk Speech on Frying Pan.” Mountain Life and Work 36.11-14. Surveys features of Southern Appalachian speech, which author believes is full of “corruptions”and “mispronunciations.”

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Taylor, Archer. 1962. “Proverbial Comparisons and Similes in On Troublesome Creek.” Kentucky Folklore Record 8.87-95. Figures of speech in James Still novel, set in Kentucky.

Thomas, Charles Kenneth. 1939. “A Composite Transcription from Knox County, Tennessee.” American Speech 14.125-26; 15.85 (Feb. 1940). Composite transcription of twenty-six Knox County natives who were students at the University of Tennessee.

Thomas, Jean. 1945. “The Changing Mountain Folk.” American Mercury 61.43-49. [eastern Kentucky]. Popular account of mountain life with many citations of Appalachian speech.

Thompson, Kathy, ed. 1976. “The Thompson Family Dictionary.” Touching Home: A Collection of History and Folklore from the Copper Basin, Fannin County Area, 12-18. Blue Ridge, Georgia.

Thompson, Lawrence S. 1956. “Names in Kentucky.” Kentucky Tradition, pp. 175-81. Hamden, Conn.: Shoe String Press. Discusses personal and place names and offers remarks on region’s vocabulary.

Thompson, Stith. 1952. “Killed up.” American Speech 27.235. [Perryville, Kentucky]. Cites 1836 and 1951 occurrences of the intensifying verb.

Thornborough, Laura. 1937. The Great Smoky Mountains. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press. Revised edition 1962. [East Tennessee]. Pp. 24-25, brief discussion of neologisms and Shakespearianisms in Smoky Mountain speech.

Thornton, Richard H. 1916. “Comment on ‘A Word-List from Virginia’.” Dialect Notes 4.349-50. [southwest Virginia]. Discusses seven older items. Compare Dingus’ 1915 study.

Toon, Thomas E. 1982. “Appalachian English.” English as a World Language, ed. by Manfred Görlach and Richard W. Bailey, pp. 239-45. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. Exemplifies phonological and grammatical features of Southern Appalachian speech, based on Wolfram and Christian’s Appalachian Speech 1976 study in West Virginia.

Tortora, Christina. 2006. “The Case of Appalachian Expletive They.” Appalachian Speech 81.266-96. Explores theoretical explanations for agreement patterns in existential clauses beginning with expletive they, specifically when followed by is (They is a big creek yet) or by are and a singular noun (They are another one down the street).

Tresidder, Argus. 1937. “The Speech of the Shenandoah Valley.” American Speech 12.284-88. [Western Virginia]. Surveys earlier work on Virginia speech; notes on phonology and lexicon.

Tresidder, Argus. 1940. “Some Virginia Provincialisms.” Quarterly Journal of Speech 26.262-69. Lexical notes on unusual terms in old-fashioned Virginia speech of Tidewater, Piedmont, and mountain areas; also discusses German contributions to Virginia speech.

Tye, Billy. 1946. “Our Time-Flavored Speech.” Notes from the Pine Mountain Settlement School 19.1.3. [Kentucky]. Examples of dialect.

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Underhill, David. 1975. “A Report on CBS News and 17 Million Appalachian People.” Mountain Review 1.2.1-3. Says television network prejudice toward Appalachian accents and people is consistent with economic paternalism toward region.

Underhill, David. 1975. “Yukking it up at CBS.” Southern Exposure 2.4.68-71. Says that network television systematically undercovers news from Appalachia and that network news personnel harbor prejudices against mountain and Southern accents which lead them not to take seriously stories reported with those accents.

Underwood, Gary N. 1983. “Mid-South, Midwestern Teachers, and Middle-of-the-Road Textbooks.” Black English: Educational Equity and the Law, ed. by John Chambers, Jr., pp. 81-96. Ann Arbor, Mich.: Karoma. Examines ten common syntactic features in the “Mid-South” (Kentucky, Tennessee, Arkansas, Southern Missouri) that become socially marked when speakers move to the Midwest and finds these features rarely noted in school textbooks.

United States Geographic Board. 1934. “Decisions June 30, 1932. Great Smoky Mountain National Park North Carolina and Tennessee. Number 28.” Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office. 46 pp.
United States Geographic Board. 1934. “Decisions Rendered April 5, 1933. Shenandoah National Park Virginia. Number 35.” Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office. 13 pp.

United States Geographic Board. 1934. “Decisions Rendered April 5, 1933. Names in the vicinity of Shenandoah National Park Virginia. Number 36.” Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office. 4 pp.

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Van Nest, R. J. 1976. “Gillis Ridge.” Appalachian Journal 3.307-10. [northeast Tennessee]. Semifictional account discussing how linguistic behavior fits into mountain culture; claims that in sound and pace of mountain speech “there is reaffirmation of the manner of their life.”

Vincent, Opal. 1945. “Certain Language Habits and Needs of the Senior Class of Harrisville High School.” Morgantown: West Virginia University M.A. thesis. Studies nonstandard usage of verbs and pronouns.

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W., H. C. 1957. “Some Unrecorded Hunting Terms Found in Kentucky.” Kentucky Folklore Record 3.4.

Walker, Raphy S. 1939. “A Mountaineer Looks at His Own Speech.” Tennessee Folklore Society Bulletin 5.1-13. [East Tennessee]. Discusses Smoky Mountain vocabulary, grammar, and pronunciation (with anecdotal account of the Southern drawl affectng vowels), with five pages of transcriptions.

Walls, David S. 1977. “On the Naming of Appalachia.” An Appalachian Symposium, ed. by J. S. Williamson. pp. 56-76. Boone, N.C.: Appalachian Consortium. Authoritative survey of early attestation of the name in early maps and documents; traces term to application by the Spanish of the name of the Apalachee Indians to the interior.

Walls, David S. 2006. “Appalachia.” Encyclopedia of Appalachia, ed. by Rudy Abramson and Jean Haskell, 1006-07. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press. On the origin and early history of the place name.

Walser, Richard. 1962. “Buncombe.” The North Carolina Miscellany, pp. 150-51. Traces term for trivial and high-sounding verbiage to early 19th-century Congressman from Western North Carolina county by the name.

Warnick, Florence. 1942. The Dialect of Garrett County, Maryland. Privately printed. 16 pp. [western Maryland]. Popular glossary of words and phrases collected in Appalachian area of Maryland from 1900-1918.

Watkins, Floyd. 1949. “The Southern Mountaineers’ Archaic English.” Georgia Review 3.219-25. Classic survey of archaic grammar and pronunciation, claiming that Chaucer and Shakespeare “would in many respects feel almost at home” in Southern Appalachia today.

Watkins, Floyd C. 1963. Yesterday in the Hills. Chicago: Quadrangle. Cherokee County, Georgia, folk culture, including lexicon.

Weals, Vic. c1959. Hillbilly Dictionary (Revised): An Edifying Collection of Mountain Expressions. Gatlinburg, Tenn.: privately printed. Dictionary of 175 lexical, grammatical, and phonological items.

Weaver, Jack. 1993. “Sociolinguistics of Scotch-Irish Speech in Appalachia.” Irish Studies Working Papers 93.12-19.

Weaver, Jack W. 2006. “One Old Stripper, an Old Churne, and Hanovers: Irish and Other Dialect in Blue Ridge Mountain Vocabulary.” The Academic Study of Ulster-Scots; Essays for and by Robert J. Gregg, ed. by Anne Smyth, Michael Montgomery, and Philip Robinson. Holywood: Ulster Folk and Transport Museum. Explores similarities in rural vocabulary between Blue Ridge North Carolina and Ireland, especially Ulster.

Webelhuth, Kurk, and Clare Dannenberg. 2006. “Southern American English Personal Datives: The Theoretical Significance of Dialectal Variation,” American Speech 81.31-55. Argues that the Double Object Construction (as in “She went to the store to get her some candy”) exemplifies idiosyncratic, language-specific properties in English not captured by general syntactic theories such as the Principles and Parameters model.

Weeks, Abigail. 1910. “A Word List from Barbourville, Kentucky.” Dialect Notes 3.456-57. Forty-five items.

Weeks, Abigail E. 1921. “The Speech of the Kentucky Mountaineer as I Know It.” New York: Teachers College, Columbia University M.A. thesis. 21 pp. Discusses origin of mountain people and their speech and how mountaineers’ speech habits reflect their culture and ways of thinking.

Wentworth, Harold. 1936. “The Mapping of American Speech.” Philological Papers 1.49-53. Relates West Virginia to Linguistic Atlas of the United States and Canada.

Wentworth, Harold. 1944. American Dialect Dictionary. New York: Crowell. 747 pp. Contains more than 15,000 terms (many not appearing in another index or dictionary) that vary geographically in pronunciation, form, or meaning, these terms from wordlists published in Dialect Notes and American Speech, published literature, and unpublished collections. Reviews: 1944. Christian Science Monitor, July 22, p. 11; 1944. New York Times, July 23, p. 25.; 1944. New Yorker, July 29, p. 64; 1944. Wisconsin Library Bulletin, Nov., p. 144.

West, Don. 1957. “‘Hill-billy’, ‘Plowboy’, ‘Wool-hats’, and ‘Crackers’.” Southern Newsletter 2.10.6-8. Says four terms are used in prejudicial and erroneous way to imply that poor whites are responsible for persecution of blacks.

West, John Foster. 1966. “Dialect of the Southern Mountains.” North Carolina Folklore 14.31-34. [western North Carolina]. Reminiscences of folksy mountain speech by a former resident.

West, Roy Andre. 1922. “The Songs of the Mountaineers.” Nashville: George Peabody College Master’s thesis. Brief comments on relic usages, mostly lexical forms.

Westover, J. Hutson. 1960. “Highland Language of the Cumberland Coal Country.” Mountain Life and Work 36.18-21. [Kentucky]. Compilation of archaic vocabulary and pronunciations from 17th century to the present, based on personal observation in physician’s clinic and on other writers.

West Virginia Heritage Foundation. 1967. “Origin of Place Names in West Virginia.” West Virginia Heritage Volume One. Richwood, West Virginia.

Wetmore, Thomas H. 1959. “The Low-Central and Low-Back Vowels in the English of the Eastern United States.” Publication of the American Dialect Society 32. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Ph.D. dissertation, 1957. Abstract in Dissertation Abstracts International 18.1423. Analyzes and describes low-central and low-back vowel phonemes, their phonic characteristics, and their incidence in the Eastern U.S., based on Linguistic Atlas of New England and Linguistic Atlas of the Middle and South Atlantic States field records. Includes Western North Carolina, pp. 59-68. Reviews: M. L. Gateau. 1963. Word 18.362; C. K. Thomas. 1961. American Speech 36.201-03; K. Wittig. 1962. Anglia 80.161-64.

White, Dorothy. 1934. “Improving the Pronunciation of High School Seniors.” Morgantown: West Virginia University M.A. thesis. [West Virginia]. Discusses nonstandard pronunciations of supervisors, teachers, and students at university laboratory high school.

White, Edward M. 1963. “The Vocabulary of Marbles in Eastern Kentucky.” Kentucky Folklore Record 9.57-74. 4 maps.

White, Linda C. 1975. “Unemphatic Love.” Western Folklore 34.154. Describes use of word love in “an unemotional, often negative vein” in Cumberland County, Kentucky.

Whitener, Rogers. 1981. “Selections from ‘Folk-Ways and Folk-Speech’.” North Carolina Folklore Journal 29.1. Mountain sayings, pp. 19-20; Appalachian place names, pp. 39-40; Mountain speech, pp. 40-42; Folk speech, pp. 43-44; Academic lore and “ferry dittles,” pp. 60-61. Short essays on aspects of Western North Carolina mountain speech.

Whitley, M. Stanley. 1975. “Dialectal Syntax: Plurals and Modals in Southern American.” Linguistics 161.89-108. Investigates patterns of modals and associative pronouns in Southern English and their relation to phrase structure rules of other American English dialect systems; concludes that Southern English and other systems can all be classified as dialects of one language.

Wilder, Roy, Jr. 1984. You All Spoken Here. New York: Viking. 213 pp. Compilation of colorful expressions, collected by personal observation and from reading newspapers, books, and magazines; lacks information on regional or social distribution or on source of material. Review: J. Burges. 1986. Southern English Newsletter 4.5-6.
Wilgus, D. K. 1959. “Down Our Way: Who’s in Town?” Kentucky Folklore Record 5.1-8. Describes eight children’s games and their unusual terminology.

Wilgus, D. K., and Lynwood Montell. 1959. “Notes: ‘Uker’.” Kentucky Folklore Record 5.130. Describes marble game by the name.

Wilkerson, Isabelle Jeanette. 1963. “A Compilation of the Proverbial Expressions in the Works of Charles Egbert Craddock.” Knoxville: University of Tennessee M.A. thesis. Classifies material into twenty-eight categories.

Williams, Cratis D. 1944. “A Word-List from the Mountains of Kentucky and North Carolina.” Publication of the American Dialect Society 2.28-31. [mainly eastern Kentucky, western North Carolina]. Fifty-two items.

Williams, Cratis D. 1961. “The Content of Mountain Speech.” Mountain Life and Work 37 (Winter): 13-17. Says mountain speech does have “strong language, sparkling with proverbial wisdom, sparkling with pleonasms, powerful metaphors, and vivid similes, abounding with archaisms,” but that it is not, contrary to some literary treatments, qualitatively different from other varieties of American folk speech.

Williams, Cratis D. 1961. “The ‘r’ in Mountain Speech.” Mountain Life and Work 37 (Spring): 5-8. Argues that “a heavy r is a general characteristic” of Appalachian speech that sets “it apart, quantitatively rather than qualitatively, from that of other Southern and Midwestern groups descended from similar pioneer stock”; exemplifies epenthesis and other processes and discusses pronunciation of vowels and diphthongs before /r/.

Williams, Cratis D. 1961. “A E I O U: Vowels and Diphthongs in Mountain Speech.” Mountain Life and Work 37 (Summer): 8-11. Relates features of vowel pronunciation in mountains to 18th-century colonial American and other varieties of speech.

Williams, Cratis D. 1961. “Rhythm and Melody in Mountain Speech.” Mountain Life and Work 37 (Fall): 7-10. Reprinted in Bobbs-Merrill Reprint Series, Language-100.Cites features of grammar, diction, and rhetoric of mountain speech.

Williams, Cratis D. 1962. “Metaphor in Mountain Speech.” Mountain Life and Work 38 (Winter): 9,11-12. Reprinted in Bobbs-Merrill Series, Language-100. Says “speech of Southern Mountaineers bristles with strong language, pungent metaphors, vivid similes, and vigorous personifications” and discusses social uses of these figures of speech; says similes far outnumber all other types of figurative expressions.

Williams, Cratis D. 1962. “Mountaineers Mind Their Manners.” Mountain Life and Work 38 (Summer): 19-25. A native’s discussion of manners and civilities of mountain speech behavior.

Williams, Cratis D. 1962. “Verbs in Mountain Speech.” Mountain Life and Work 38.15-19. Discusses verb principal parts and says that the “primitive strength of mountaineer speech is exerted largely in verbs and the spare economy with which they function.”

Williams, Cratis D. 1963. “Metaphor in Mountain Speech.” Mountain Life and Work 39.1 (Spring): 50-53. Discusses figures of speech and traditional expressions for characterizing great physical strength, unusual courage, honesty, strength of convictions, and other personal traits in Southern Appalachian speech.

Williams, Cratis D. 1963. “Metaphor in Mountain Speech.” Mountain Life and Work 39.2 (Summer): 51-53. Discusses and exemplifies exaggerations used in Southern mountains.

Williams, Cratis D. 1964. “Prepositions in Mountain Speech.” Mountain Life and Work 40 (Spring): 53-55. Says mountain speakers rely heavily on prepositions to express themselves rather than Latinate words and that mountain grammar tends not to have “distinctions between prepositions and subordinate conjunctives and, frequently, relative pronouns.”

Williams, Cratis D. 1967. “Subtlety in Mountain Speech.” Mountain Life and Work 43 (Spring): 14-16. Says mountaineer “possesses subtleties in emphasis and traditional tricks in turning phrases in basic English that enable him to express himself colorfully” and presents his translation of five literary selections into mountain dialect to demonstrate this.

Williams, Cratis D. 1968. “Mountain Speech.” Language and Culture: A Reader, ed. by Patrick Gleeson and Nancy Wakefield, pp. 151-60. Columbus, Ohio: Charles E. Merrill.

Williams, Cratis D. 1975-76. “The Southern Mountaineer in Fact and Fiction.” Appalachian Journal 3.8-61, 100-62, 186-261, 334-92. Pp. 101-02, discusses James Hall’s handling of dialect in Harpe’s Head: a Legend of Kentucky and Carroline M. S. Kirkland’s handling of dialect in her A New Home—Who’ll Follow? or, Glimpses of Western Life.

Williams, Cratis D. 1978. “Appalachian Speech.” North Carolina Historical Review 55.174-79. Provides an overview of Southern Appalachian pronunciation and grammar and presents folk tale in modified orthography to reflect these features.

Williams, John Rodger. 1985. “Appalachian Migrants in Cincinnati, Ohio: The Role of Folklore in the Reinforcement of Ethnic Identity.” Appalachian Speech Style, pp. 55-85. Bloomington: Indiana University Ph.D. dissertation.

Wilson, Charles M. 1929. “Elizabethan American.” Atlantic 144.238-44. [Appalachia, Ozarks]. Cites linguistic and cultural traits of mountains that have survived “from Elizabethan England.”

Wilson, Charles Morrow. 1930. “Beefsteak When I’m Hungry.” Virginia Quarterly Review 6.240-50. A layman’s observations of the English of the Southern mountains.

Wilson, George P. 1944. “A Word-List from Virginia and North Carolina.” Publication of the American Dialect Society 2.38-52. Glossary of items cross-referenced to Oxford English Dictionary and English Dialect Dictionary where possible.

Wilson, George P., ed. 1952. “Folk Speech.” The Frank C. Brown Collection of North Carolina Folklore, pp. 505-618. Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press. List of more than 1,500 items including pronunciations, unusual meanings, names, and grammatical usages (frequently compared to British dialectal or literary usages), figurative expressions, humorous rhymes, dance calls, salutations and replies, and unusual interpretations of scripture, culled by Wilson from the folklorist Brown’s collection of notes on the English language as used in North Carolina.

Wilson, George P. 1958. “Some Folk Sayings from North Carolina.” North Carolina Folklore 6.2.7-18.

Wilson, George P. 1961. “Lois Lenski’s Use of Regional Speech.” North Carolina Folklore 9.2.1-3. Defends North Carolina regional novelist’s use of dialect in her children’s novels.

Wilson, Gordon. 1956. “Down Our Way: Tell Us What It’s like.” Kentucky Folklore Record 2.1-3. Sample similes based on ten adjectives such as big, crooked, etc.

Wilson, Gordon. 1963. “Studying Folklore in a Small Region--IV: Regional Words.” Tennessee Folklore Society Bulletin 29.79-86. [South Central Kentucky] Discusses rustic vocabulary and place names; calls for more interest in folk language.

Wilson, Gordon. 1964. “Words Relating to Plants and Animals in the Mammoth Cave Region.” Publication of the American Dialect Society 42.11-25. Reprinted in Folklore of the Mammoth Cave Region (Bowling Green: Kentucky Folklore Society, 1968), pp. 12-26. More than 200 items collected in South Central Kentucky.

Wilson, Gordon. 1965. “Proverbial Lore.” Tennessee Folklore Society Bulletin 31.99-104. [Mammoth Cave, South Central Kentucky]. Classified list of proverbs from region.

Wilson, Gordon. 1965-66. “Mammoth Cave Words.” Kentucky Folklore Record 11. Sections: I Around the house. Kentucky Folklore Record 11.5-8; II Around the house some more. Kentucky Folklore Record 11. 28-31 (Apr.-June, 1965); III Neighborhood doings. Kentucky Folklore Record 11.52-55 (July-Sept., 1965); IV More neighborhood doings. Kentucky Folklore Record 11.78-81 (Oct.-Dec., 1965); V Some good regional verbs. Kentucky Folklore Record 12.15-20 (Jan.-Mar., 1966); VI Some folk nouns. Kentucky Folklore Record 12.67-71 (Apr.-June, 1966); VII Some more folk nouns. Kentucky Folklore Record 12.93-98 (July-Sept., 1966); VIII Some useful adjectives. Kentucky Folklore Record 12.73-74 (Oct.-Dec., 1966). First four articles reprinted in Lawrence Thompson, ed. 1968. Folklore of the Mammoth Cave Region. Bowling Green: Kentucky Folklore Society. [South Central Kentucky]

Wilson, Gordon. 1967. “Studying Folklore in a Small Region XII: Some Folk Grammar.” Tennessee Folklore Society Bulletin 33.27-35. [Mammoth Cave, South Central Kentucky]. Survey of noun, pronoun, and other morphological features from Western Kentucky, gleaned from freshman compositions and from lifetime of personal observation.

Wilson, Gordon. 1968. “Similes from the Mammoth Cave Region with a Farm Flavor.” Kentucky Folklore Record 14.44-50; 14.69-75; 14.94-99. [South Central Kentucky]

Wilson, Gordon. 1969. “Some Mammoth Cave Sayings: I. Sayings with a Farm Flavor.” Kentucky Folklore Record 15.12-21; 15.37-44 (April-June, 1969): 15.69-74 (July-Sept., 1969). [South Central Kentucky]

Wilson, Gordon. 1970-71. “Origins of the People of the Mammoth Cave Region as Shown by Their Surnames and Regional Words.” Kentucky Folklore Record 16.73-78. [South Central Kentucky]

Wilson, Gordon. 1970-71. “Origins of the People of the Mammoth Cave Region as Shown by Their Surnames and Regional Words.” Kentucky Folklore Record 17.10-18, regional words I; 17.31-39, regional words II. [South Central Kentucky]

Wilson, Gypsy Vera. 1937. “Language.” Folklore in Southeastern Kentucky, pp. 6-38. Nashville: George Peabody College thesis. [Bell County, Kentucky]. Surveys archaisms, names, pronunciations, and proverbial expressions, and investigates familiarity of list of the latter in Blount County, Tennessee.

Winkler, J. S. 1972. “Whence the Name Dula? One Plausibility.” North Carolina Folklore 22.84-86.

Wolfram, Walt. 1976. “Toward a Description of ‘a’-prefixing in Appalachian English.” American Speech 51.45-56. [100+ children and adults, southern West Virginia]. Examines syntactic properties, phonological constraints, and semantic aspects of prefix; finds that it occurs mainly with -ing progressive verbs and before stressed syllables beginning with a consonant and that it has no apparent semantic content of indefiniteness or remoteness (contrary to William Stewart or of continuousness or intermittentness (contrary to Robert Hackenberg).

Wolfram, Walt. 1977. “Language Assessment in Appalachia: A Sociolinguistic Perspective.” Appalachian Journal 4.224-34. Guidelines for testing language ability of Appalachian children and for using and interpreting results of standardized tests.

Wolfram, Walt. 1977. “On the Linguistic Study of Appalachian Speech.” Appalachian Journal 5.92-102. History of the study of Appalachian speech, assessment of current knowledge, and statement of future prospects and needs for research; extensive bibliography.

Wolfram, Walt. 1980. “‘A’-prefixing in Appalachian English.” Locating Language in Time and Space, ed. by William Labov, pp. 107-42. New York: Academic Press. [southern West Virginia]. Detailed analysis of syntactic and phonological constraints on use of prefix; finds no evidence for semantic content.

Wolfram, Walt. 1980. “Beyond Black English: Implications of the Ann Arbor Decision for Other Nonmainstream Varieties.” Reactions to Ann Arbor: Vernacular Black English and Education, ed. by Marcia Farr Whiteman, pp. 10-23. Arlington, Va.: Center for Applied Linguistics. Discusses linguistic, sociolinguistic, and educational parallels between Black English and other varieties of American English and implications of Ann Arbor “Black English case” for dealing with and testing speakers of these varieties, especially speakers of Appalachian speech.

Wolfram, Walt. 1982. “Language Knowledge and Other Dialects.” American Speech 57.3-18. Theoretical essay examining how accurately nonnative speakers of a- prefixing and distributive be judge syntactic constraints for these features, in attempt to support view that speakers may have more than one grammar for different styles of their language.

Wolfram, Walt. 1983. “Test Interpretation and Sociolinguistic Differences.” Topics in Language Disorders 3.21-34. Discusses evaluation of standardized tests of Appalachian and Black Vernacular English speakers.

Wolfram, Walt. 1984. “Is There an ‘Appalachian English’?” Appalachian Journal 11.215-24. Outlines stages in a study of Appalachian speech and discusses difficulty of defining “Appalachian English” and other dialects on an objective basis, but concludes tentatively that it can be characterized by a unique “set of co-occurring structures.”

Wolfram, Walt. 1986. “Black-White Dimensions in Sociolinguistic Test Bias.” Language Variety in the South: Perspectives in Black and White, ed. by Michael Montgomery and Guy Bailey, pp. 373-85. University: University of Alabama Press. Explores levels on which sociolinguistic differences may be reflected in standardized tests and in testing situations for speakers of African American Vernacular English or Southern Appalachian English and the relationship of these levels to issues of educational equity.

Wolfram, Walt. 2003. “Enclave Dialect Communities in the South.” [Appalachia, N.C., Chesapeake Bay]. English in the Southern United States, ed. by Stephen J. Nagle and Sara L. Sanders, 141-158. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Compares speech of North Carolina mountain communities to that of the Outer Banks, Chesapeake Bay islands, and multi-ethnic communities on the mainland of North Carolina.

Wolfram, Walt. 2003. “Reexamining the Development of African American English: Evidence from Isolated Communities.” [western North Carolina]. Language 79.282-316. Examines phonological and grammatical patterns in the speech of North Carolina African American communities, including one in the Blue Ridge mountains and compares them to local white varieties to explore the development of African American English; finds both extensive accommodation to local varieties and an exclusive subset of dialect features that suggest influence from an earlier, creole or creole-like variety.

Wolfram, Walt, and Anthony Cavender. 1992. “Dialect and Special-Interest Domains: Conceptual and Methodological Issues in Collecting a Medical Lexicon.” American Speech 67.406-20. From an extensive survey of language and medicine that interviewed laypeople and health-care professionals, considers implications for sociolinguistic fieldwork methodology.

Wolfram, Walt, and Donna Christian. 1975. “Sociolinguistic Variables in Appalachian Dialects.” Final report, National Institute of Education grant number 74-0026. Eric Document 112 687. 413 pp. Published in condensed form as following item.

Wolfram, Walt, and Donna Christian. 1976. Appalachian Speech. Arlington, Va.: Center for Applied Linguistics. viii + 190 pp. Eric Document 150 811. [129 speakers, all ages, Mercer and Monroe Counties, southern West Virginia]. Detailed sociolinguistic analysis of rural Appalachian speech, presenting a sociolinguistic framework for the study of Appalachian English, focusing on phonological aspects (final consonant clusters, contraction, pronunciation of initial segments, etc.) and grammatical features of verbs, adverbs, negation, nominals, prepositions, and indirect questions, and discussing educational implications of dialect diversity in region; includes interview questionnaire and sample interview. Reviews: R. R. Butters. 1979. Language 55.460-62; J. Coady. 1973. Language Sciences 28.27-28; M. Montgomery. 1982. American Speech 57.134-39; R. Payne. 1977. Journal of English Linguistics 11.83-92. 

Wolfram, Walt, and Donna Christian. 1977. “The Language Frontier in Appalachia.” Appalachian Notes 5.33-41. Also in Mountain Review 3.2.1-5. Essay on variation and change in mountain speech, attitudes toward it, and implications for teachers.

Wolfram, Walt, and Donna Christian. 1980. “On the Application of Sociolinguistic Information: Test Evaluation and Dialect Differences in Appalachia.” Standards and Dialects in English, ed. by Timothy Shopen and Joseph M. Williams, pp. 177-212. Cambridge, Mass.: Winthrop. Application of findings from sociolinguistic research in West Virginia to taking and evaluation of standardized tests of “correct” language use; discusses four principles of test evaluation and how they should be applied. Appendix A: Some grammatical characteristics of Appalachian English, 205-09; Appendix B, Two illustrative narratives from West Virginia, 210-12.

Wolfram, Walt, and Ralph W. Fasold. 1974. The Study of Social Dialects in American English. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall. 239 pp. Surveys the social dialect patterns in U.S. based on sociolinguistic studies and comparing many patterns of Southern American pronunciation and grammar to those of social groups and regions elsewhere in the country. Reviews: T. K. Crowl. 1976. Journal of Communication 26.151-53; J. L. Dillard. 1975. Language in Society 4.367-75; D. E. Eskey. 1976. College English 37.718-23; R. I. McDavid, Jr. and R. K. O’Cain. 1977. American Anthropologist 79.947-48; S. M. Tsuzaki. 1975. Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages Quarterly 9.438-40; W. Viereck. 1977. Studies in Linguistics 1.145-49; L. V. Zuck. 1976. Language Learning 26.191-98.

Wolfram, Walt, and Neal Hutcheson. 2003. Mountain Talk: Language and Life in Southern Appalachia. Raleigh: North Carolina Language and Life Project, Humanities Extension / Publications, North Carolina State University). Made-for-television, hour-long video featuring speakers in Graham and Haywood counties, their speech, and their attitudes toward it. Review: Michael Montgomery. 2005. Appalachian Journal 32.389-95.

Wood, Gordon R. 1958. “A List of Words from Tennessee.” Publication of the American Dialect Society 29.3-18. 152 items, submitted mostly by the public in response to newspaper solicitations from the writer.

Wood, Gordon R. 1960. “Heard in the South: The Progress of a Word Geography.” Tennessee Folklore Society Bulletin 26.1-7. Discusses early stages of author’s large-scale postal survey of Southern vocabulary.

Wood, Gordon R. 1963. “Dialect Contours in the Southern States.” American Speech 38.243-56. 7 maps. Discusses major lexical isoglosses showing Midland-Southern boundary in eight of interior states of the South that were settled after 1800 and correlates vocabulary with three stages of the settlement history of region: advancing frontier, growth of towns, and increase of regional communication.

Wood, Gordon R. 1967. “Sub-Regional Speech Variation in Vocabulary, Grammar, and Pronunciation.” Cooperative Research Project no. 3046 final report. Eric Document 019 263. [33 natives of Alabama, East Tennessee, northeast Mississippi, northwest Georgia]. Investigates degree of subregional homogeneity in vocabulary, pronunciation, and sentence structure; finds generational differences greatest in vocabulary and least in grammar.

Wood, Gordon R. 1971. Vocabulary Change: A Study of Variation in Regional Words in Eight of the Southern States. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press. Comprehensive work based primarily on postal questionnaire of over 1,000 informants that studies generational and subregional patterns of nearly 1200 words and expressions in the mid-South; uses ninety-four figures and maps to relate these patterns to agricultural regions and to 19th-century migration across the South. Reviews: W. J. Griffin. 1972. Tennessee Folklore Society Bulletin 38.82-83; J. B. McMillan. 1972. Mississippi Quarterly 8.101-04; H. W. Marshall. 1974. Journal of American Folklore 87.101-02; L. Pederson. 1973. Language 49.184-87.

Woodard, C. M. 1946. “A Word-List from Virginia and North Carolina.” Publication of the American Dialect Society 6.4-43. [primarily Pamplico County, North Carolina and Salem, Virginia]. Extended wordlist, with notes on frequency of use; includes a ten-page list of sayings and similes.

Woodbridge, Hensley C. 1956. “1. ‘To Funk.’ 2. ‘Dog Run’.” American Speech 31.309-10. First term is Kentucky term meaning “to spoil tobacco”; second term is cited from Arkansas and Florida and refers to dogs trotting over loose, dry boards.

Woodbridge, Hensley C. 1957. “Folklore in the Works of Janice Holt Giles.” Kentucky Historical Society Register 55.330-37. [Kentucky]. Includes brief comments on similes.

Woodbridge, Hensley C. 1957. “Some Unrecorded Hunting Terms Found in Kentucky.” Kentucky Folklore Record 3.153-58. Discusses twenty-nine terms, most from Harriette Arnow’s Hunter’s Horn; based on fiction of Armstrong, Cauthern, and Dominick.

Woodbridge, Hensley C. 1958. “Americanisms in James Still’s The Nest.” Kentucky Folklore Record 4.63-64. [Kentucky]. Six terms, including crawdabber and battle out, not appearing in Matthews’ Dictionary of Americanisms.

Woodbridge, Hensley C. 1958. “Flats and Bottoms.” Kentucky Folklore Record 4.175. Use of these terms, referring to land bordering water, in Hopkins County, Kentucky.

Woodson, Anthony. 1925. “Kentucky Similes.” Kentucky Folklore Bulletin, pp. 8-11. Classification of more than one hundred similes based on comparisons to vegetables, animals, and minerals.

Woofter, Carey. 1927. “Dialect Words and Phrases from West-Central West Virginia.” American Speech 2.347-67. [Central West Virginia]. Extended word-list from Little Kanawha Valley.

Work Projects Administration. 1939. Kentucky: A Guide to the Bluegrass State. New York: Harcourt Brace. Pp. 89-90, on dialect.

Work Projects Administration. 1939. Tennessee: A Guide to the State. New York: Viking Press. Pp. 134-35, notes on speech.

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Zelinsky, Wilbur. 1970. “Cultural Variation in Personal Name Patterns in the Eastern United States.” Annals of the Association of American Geographers 60.743-69. Finds regional patterns in the choice of given names, which confirm “the existence of three basic early American culture areas: New England, the Midland, and the South.” Based on frequency of principal male names in sixteen selected counties in Eastern U.S. in 1790 and 1968.

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