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College of Arts & Sciences
Hazards & Vulnerability Research Institute

Baseline Resilience Indicators for Communities (BRIC)

The BRIC index considers six broad categories of community disaster resilience: social, economic, community capital, institutional, infrastructural, and environmental at the county level. Used as an initial baseline for monitoring existing attributes of resilience to natural hazards, BRIC can be used to compare places to one another, to determine the specific drivers of resilience for counties, and to monitor improvements in resilience over time. BRIC is available at two time periods, 2010 and 2015.

Maps using this data can be found here.

County Composite BRIC Scores


Selected Applications of BRIC:

Selected Academic Publications:

Bakkensen, L.A., Fox-Lent, C., Read, L.K. and Linkov, I., 2017. Validating resilience and vulnerability indices in the context of natural disasters. Risk analysis, 37(5), pp.982-1004.

Coetzee, C., Van Niekerk, D. and Raju, E., 2018. Reconsidering disaster resilience: a nonlinear systems paradigm in agricultural communities in Southern Africa. Natural Hazards, 90(2), pp.777-801.

Cutter, S.L., Ash, K.D. and Emrich, C.T., 2016. Urban–rural differences in disaster resilience. Annals of the American Association of Geographers, 106(6), pp.1236-1252.

Daramola, A.Y., Oni, O.T., Ogundele, O. and Adesanya, A., 2016. Adaptive capacity and coping response strategies to natural disasters: a study in Nigeria. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, 15, pp.132-147.

Davidson, J., Jacobson, C., Lyth, A., Dedekorkut-Howes, A., Baldwin, C., Ellison, J., Holbrook, N., Howes, M., Serrao-Neumann, S., Singh-Peterson, L. and Smith, T., 2016. Interrogating resilience: toward a typology to improve its operationalization. Ecology and Society, 21(2).

Kotzee, I. and Reyers, B., 2016. Piloting a social-ecological index for measuring flood resilience: A composite index approach. Ecological indicators, 60, pp.45-53.

Lin, P., Wang, N. and Ellingwood, B.R., 2016. A risk de-aggregation framework that relates community resilience goals to building performance objectives. Sustainable and Resilient Infrastructure, 1(1-2), pp.1-13.

McEwen, L., Garde-Hansen, J., Holmes, A., Jones, O. and Krause, F., 2017. Sustainable flood memories, lay knowledges and the development of community resilience to future flood risk. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, 42(1), pp.14-28.

Meerow, S., Newell, J.P. and Stults, M., 2016. Defining urban resilience: A review. Landscape and urban planning, 147, pp.38-49.

Montz, B.E., Tobin, G.A. and Hagelman, R.R., 2017. Natural Hazards: Explanation and Integration. Guilford Publications.

Ostadtaghizadeh, A., Ardalan, A., Paton, D., Khankeh, H. and Jabbari, H., 2016. Community disaster resilience: a qualitative study on Iranian concepts and indicators. Natural Hazards, 83(3), pp.1843-1861.

Parsons, M., Glavac, S., Hastings, P., Marshall, G., McGregor, J., McNeill, J., Morley, P., Reeve, I. and Stayner, R., 2016. Top-down assessment of disaster resilience: a conceptual framework using coping and adaptive capacities. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, 19, pp.1-11.

Rose, A., 2017. Empirical Analysis. In Defining and Measuring Economic Resilience from a Societal, Environmental and Security Perspective (pp. 59-68). Springer, Singapore.

Sayers, P., Penning-Rowsell, E.C. and Horritt, M., 2018. Flood vulnerability, risk, and social disadvantage: current and future patterns in the UK. Regional Environmental Change, 18(2), pp.339-352.

Shao, W., Gardezi, M., and Xian, S., 2018. Examining the effects of objective hurricane risks and community resilience on risk perceptions of hurricanes at the county level in the U.S Gulf Coast: an innovative approach. Annals of the American Association of Geographers, 108(5), pp.1389-1405.

Sharifi, A., 2016. A critical review of selected tools for assessing community resilience. Ecological indicators, 69, pp.629-647.

Sharifi, A. and Yamagata, Y., 2016. On the suitability of assessment tools for guiding communities towards disaster resilience. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, 18, pp.115-124.

Sharifi, A. and Yamagata, Y., 2016. Principles and criteria for assessing urban energy resilience: A literature review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 60, pp.1654-1677.

Twilley, R.R., Bentley, S.J., Chen, Q., Edmonds, D.A., Hagen, S.C., Lam, N.S.N., Willson, C.S., Xu, K., Braud, D., Peele, R.H. and McCall, A., 2016. Co-evolution of wetland landscapes, flooding, and human settlement in the Mississippi River Delta Plain. Sustainability Science, 11(4), pp.711-731.

Yoon, D.K., Kang, J.E. and Brody, S.D., 2016. A measurement of community disaster resilience in Korea. Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, 59(3), pp.436-460.