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 CHRISTOPHER G. ST.C. KENDALL

Link to Download Site for Sedimentary Simulation "Sedpak"


 
Research Group 
Facilities
Index of Vitae

Research Activities
Professor Emeritus
 

University of South Carolina

Department of Geological Sciences

Marine Science Program

E-Mail & Phone
e-mail: kendall@sc.edu
Office phone: 
(803) 978-7523

Home phone:
(803) 256- 9438 

FAX: 
(803) 777- 6610

Office: ESRI
1233 Washington

EDUCATION

Primary Education, 1948-1956, Dean Close Junior and Senior Schools, Cheltenham, Glos, UK 
B.A., 1962, M.A., 1965, Trinity College, Dublin, Eire 
Ph.D., 1966, Imperial College, London, United Kingdom

HONORS


RESEARCH AREAS

Though retired from the Department of Geological Sciences, University of South Carolina, I have a University of South Carolina office and am still conducting research. To this end I work with research scientists and students but no longer officially teach department courses and no longer accept graduate students to supervise their research.

In the past my students and I (the StratMod Group) worked with geological data related to sedimentary stratigraphy from all over the world.  I still conduct research into seismic stratigraphic interpretations, sequence stratigraphy, development of graphical simulations and their application to basin modeling in terms of stratigraphy, sediment geometry responding to eustasy, tectonic history and rates of sedimentation and thermal maturation.  I work with Middle East stratigraphy and hydrocarbons; carbonate facies, geometry and cementation.  On the map below you can see where the StratMod Group has worked and by clicking on the different boxes you cab view this

Select Region of Interest

Regions of the world where the StratMod Group has current projects Alaska Gulf Mexico Venezuela Guyana ArabianGulf South Africa Maldives australia
NORTH AMERICA
SOUTH AMERICA 
EUROPE
ASIA 
AFRICA 
AUSTRALIA
Alaska
Venezuela
Italy
 Arabian Gulf 
Morocco
Western Australia
Gulf of Mexico
Guyana
 
 Maldives
South Africa
 
Bahamas
       


 

Simulation Development and Distance Learning

With Dr. Phil Moore, of the College of Arts and Science building interactive empirical graphical simulations to run on microcomputer work stations to model basin fill in terms of eustasy, tectonic movement and rates of sedimentation.

Dr. Phil Moore, my students and I are working on an extension of the use of simulations to teach sequence stratigraphy on the web with a series of exercises (see the USC Sequence Stratigraphy Web) and annotated movies () that use sedimentary simulation that have been developed to show the evolution of sedimentary geometries in response to variations in rates of sedimentation, tectonic movement, and sea-level position. These exercises and movies evolve from hypothetical situations to real life examples based on outcrops, well log and seismic cross sections. The learning path associated with the exercises starts with simple situations and evolves to more complex relationships.

Our rational is that the advantages of accessing sedimentary simulations interactively for teaching sequence stratigraphy are that they provide a globally accessible platform for understanding the complexities of sediment stratigraphy. They enable identification, testing, and modeling of sedimentary systems and sharing this data with others. They enhance the understanding of biostratigraphic studies and provide age constraints for stratal geometries and sequence stratigraphic interpretations. They provide a means of quantifying models that explain and predict stratal geometries produced between sequence stratigraphic boundaries and enables complex sediment geometries and architectures to be unraveled. They reduce the time required to understanding interpretations of seismic and well data by identifying and constraining the key factors that control sequence stratigraphic geometries and architectures, including rates of sedimentation, slope angles, distance of sediment transport into a basin, eustatic sea level, and tectonics.

It is our premise that sedimentary simulations are at their most effective during the presentation of complex interpretations sedimentary sequences and/or the training of the novitiate interpreter.

You can view this at the USC Sequence Stratigraphy Web site.


Sequence Stratigraphic Analysis and Sedimentary Simulation

Working with Dr. Phil Moore, College of Arts and Science  we combine the principles of seismic sequence stratigraphy & computer simulation techniques, computer simulation techniques, to age date sedimentary sections.  Major second order sequence boundaries are identified on seismic sections and used to bracket the third order events, which are then correlated with the Haq eustatic curve using chronostratigraphic charts.  The interpreted seismic cross section and chronostratigraphic chart are reproduced by a computer simulation, to determine the eustatic control of the events on the Haq chart with respect to the Mesozoic and Tertiary.  Confirmation of the size and frequency of eustatic events from the Haq curve provides a means to determine rates of tectonic movement and sedimentation.  Investigating the use of simulation to make accurate predictions of lithofacies and sedimentary geometries, as well as the components of the petroleum system Regional studies include:

      One of the rational behind these study is that if these events are eustatic they should have a global signal, whereas if they are tectonic then they will be found locally. If the cycles are eustatic, then the cycles can be used to better define the local stratigraphy and make better predictions for their depositional systems and so their reservoir characteristics etc. (Link to the StratMod Group).


       

      3-D Sequence Stratigraphic Analysis

      Working with Dr. Phil Moore, of the College of Arts and Science we investigate sedimentary rules that control deposition, erosion and so the geometry of sediment.  We have collected, analyzed, and modeled high resolution sequence stratigraphic facies with 3-D data from the Gulf of Mexico and the West Texas Midland Basin.  We are studying the Cenozoic sands of the nearshore and in the deep-water offshore of Louisiana focusing on basinal turbidite lobes in the context of sequence stratigraphic models, modified by growth fault movement and mini basin fill and spill.  A catalogue of examples of the 3-D clastic fill is being created to determine how these deep water clastics have responded to varying sea level, climate, and tectonic motion, and what their reservoir character and potential might be.  Sands with hydrocarbon potential have their reservoir quality characterized using well logs and seismic.  The results of this study should aid ongoing exploration of other areas within the Gulf, establishing the reservoir character of potential plays.

      We are interpretating and mapping the details of the geometry and lithofacies distribution within the various depositional systems of the Pennsylvanian and Permian section in the Glassock/Sterling area of the Midland Basin of West Texas. To do this we are using a 140 square mile 3D seismic survey and its associated wells that have been provided by ChevronTexaco.  The 3D survey is located on the Southern side of the Glasscock Nose and we are defining the deepwater fans and related conglomerates and breccias in the area. We are studying the slopes that feed these features and the up dip clastics and carbonates of the shelf. Using our experience with the Gulf of Mexico Miocene clastics we are flattening the seismic to shale markers (mfs?) correlated with the adjacent wells.  We are building paleo-morphologic maps from seismic amplitude anomalies we see on the shelf, its margin, slope and adjacent basin.  Pushing the envelope we know, but nothing ventured nothing gained.


      Middle East Oil Field Stratigraphy

      With Dr. Al Sharhan of the United Arab Emirates, we are describing the regional stratigraphy of hydrocarbon occurrence, investigating the relationship of the Mesozoic shelf carbonate reservoirs in the Arabian Gulf to the underlying Infra-Cambrian Salt Basin, the local Hercynian structural fabric, Late Cretaceous overthrusting in the Oman Mountains and if their stratigraphy is punctuated by eustasy.


      Carbonates

      Investigating the controls on carbonate facies and their cementation of the Holocene of the United Arab Emirates (U.A.E.) with Dr. Abdulrahman Alsharhan of the U.A.E.

      Recent Publications

      In Press Christopher G. St. C. Kendall & Abdulrahman Al-Sharhan, “Carbonate/Evaporite Stratigraphic Signals of Base Level Change in the Geologic Record” in Evaporite Conference memorial volume commemorating Douglas Shearman to be published by International Association of Sedimentologists.

      In Press Christopher G. St. C. Kendall & Abdulrahman Al-Sharhan, “Cyano-Bacterial Mats in Strandline Evaporite/Carbonate Deposits along the cost of Abu Dhabi, UAE” at the Evaporite Conference memorial volume commemorated Douglas Shearman to be published by International Association of Sedimentologists

      2008 Luis Pomar & Christopher Kendall, Carbonate platform architecture; a response to hydrodynamics and evolving ecology; SEPM Special Publication 89 - Controls on Carbonate Platform and Reef Development” Edited by J. Lukasik and T. Simo;p 187-216

      2007 Csato, Istvan, Christopher G. St C. Kendall and Phil D. Moore "The Messinian problem in the Pannonian Basin, Eastern Hungary - Insights from stratigraphic simulations" Sedimentary Geology 201, 111–140

      2007 Wonsuck Kim, Daekyo Cheong, and Christopher G. St. C. Kendall, "Effects of in-phase and out-of-phase sediment supply responses to tectonic movement on the sequence development in the late Tertiary Southern Ulleung Basin, East (Japan) Sea", Computers & Geosciences 33 (2007) 299–310

      2005 Yuval Ben-Gai, Zvi Ben-Avraham, Binyamin Buchbinder and Christopher G.St.C. Kendall "Post-Messinian evolution of the Levant basin based on two-dimensional stratigraphic modeling": Marine Geology V 221, Is 1-4, P 359-379

      2005 Peter K. Swart, David L. Cantrell, Hildegard Westphal, C. Robertson Handford, and Christopher G. Kendall; “Origin of Dolomite in the Arab-D Reservoir from the Ghawar Field, Saudi Arabia: Evidence from Petrographic and Geochemical Constraints” Journal of Sedimentary Research, Vol. 75, No. 3, May, 2005, P. 476–491

      2003 Kendall, Christopher G.St.C.; Lake, Paul; Weathers III, Dallon H.; Lakshmi, Venkat; Althausen, John; and Alsharhan, Abdulrahman S.;" Evidence of rain shadow in the geologic record: repeated evaporite accumulation at extensional and compressional plate margins. In: A.S. Sharhan, W.W. Wood, A.S. Goudie, A. Fowler and E.M. Abdellatif (eds), The Desertification in the Third Millennium. Swets & Zeitlinger Publishers (Balkema), Lisse, The Netherlands, ISBN: 90 5809 5711, p.45-52.

      2003 Lakshmi,Venkat; Christopher G.St.C. Kendall, John Althausen and Abdulrahman S. Alsharhan;. "Studies of local climate change in United Arab Emirates using satellite data." In: A.S. Sharhan, W.W. Wood, A.S. Goudie, A. Fowler and E.M. Abdellatif (eds), The Desertification in the Third Millennium. Swets & Zeitlinger Publishers (Balkema), Lisse, The Netherlands, ISBN: 90 5809 5711, p.61-66.

      2003 Kendall, C.G.St.C. , V. Lakshmi, J. Althausen and A.S. Alsharhan;. "Changes in Microclimate Tracked by the Evolving Vegetation Cover of the Holocene Beach Ridges of the United Arab Emirates". In: A.S. Sharhan, W.W. Wood, A.S. Goudie, A. Fowler and E.M. Abdellatif (eds), The Desertification in the Third Millennium. Swets & Zeitlinger Publishers (Balkema), Lisse, The Netherlands, ISBN: 90 5809 5711, p.91-98.

      2003 Althausen Jr.John, Christopher G.St.C. Kendall, Venkat Lakshmi, Abdulrahman S. Alsharhan and Gregory L. Whittle; "Using satellite imagery and GIS in the mapping of coastal landscapes in an arid environment: Khor Al Bazam, Western Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates". In: A.S. Sharhan, W.W. Wood, A.S. Goudie, A. Fowler and E.M. Abdellatif (eds), The Desertification in the Third Millennium. Swets & Zeitlinger Publishers (Balkema), Lisse, The Netherlands, ISBN: 90 5809 5711, p.415-422.

      2002 Alsharhan, A.S., and C.G.St.C. Kendall, Holocene Carbonate/Evaporites of Abu Dhabi, and their Jurassic Ancient Analogues in Benno Boer & Hans-Joerg Barth eds. The Sabkhas of the Arabian Peninsula Region - Distribution and Ecology, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Page

      2002 Kendall, C.G.St.C..,  A.S. Alsharhan, and A Cohen, The Holocene Tidal flat Complex of the Arabian Gulf Coast of Abu Dhabi in Benno Boer & Hans-Joerg Barth eds. The Sabkhas of the Arabian Peninsula Region - Distribution and Ecology, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Page 21-35

      2001, Csato, I., C. G. St. C. Kendall, Modeling of stratigraphic architectural patterns in extensional settings – Toward a conceptual model, Computers and Geosciences.

      2001 Muatasam H. Al-Raisi  and Christopher G. St. C. Kendall, Structural And Depositional Controls Of The Sedimentary Fill Of The Algoa Basin-South Africa, and It's Hydrocarbon potential.  Proceedings SPE-PAPG Annual Technical Conference on 7-8 November 2001, Islamabad, Pakistan. Page 87-100.

      2001 - Schreiber, B. C., R. P. Philip, S. Benali, M. L. Helman, J. A. de la Peña, R. Marfil, P. Landais, A.D. Cohen, and C. G. St. C. Kendall; “Characterization of Organic matter Formed in Hypersaline carbonate/Evaporite Environments: Hydrocarbon Potential and Biomarkers Obtained through Artificial Maturation Studies”, Journal of Petroleum Geology, v. 24 (3), p309-338.

      2000 - Kendall, Christopher G. St. C., Abdulrahman. S. Alsharhan, Kurt Johnston and Sean R. Ryan; “Can The Sedimentary Record Be Dated From A Sea-Level Chart?  Examples from the Aptian of the UAE and Alaska”. In A. S. Alsharhan and R. W. Scott, Eds, Society of Economic Petrologists and Mineralogists (SEPM) Special Publication 69 on the Jurassic/Cretaceous Platform-Basin Systems; Middle East Models; p 65-76

      2000 - Cantrell, David L., Peter K. Swart, Robertson C. Handford, Christopher G. Kendall, and Hildegard Westphal, “Geology, and Production Significance of Dolomite, Arab-D Reservoir, Ghawar Field, Saudi Arabia”, GeoArabia, v. 6, p45-60.

      1999 - Sen, A., Kendall, C.G.S.C., and Levine, P., 1999, Combining a computer simulation and eustatic events to date seismic sequence boundaries: a case study of the Neogene of the Bahamas: Sedimentary Geology, v. 125, p. 47-59..

      1999 - D. Cheong, G. Whittle, and C. Kendall, Graphical simulation of clastic margin progradation: Ulleung Basin, offshore Korea, Geoscience Journal, v.3 (no.1), p.63-73.

      1998 - Liu, Keyu., Trent C.K Liang, Lincoln Paterson and Christopher.G.St.C. Kendall, Computer simulation of the influence of basin physiography on condensed section deposition and maximum flooding. Sedimentary Geology, 122 pp.181-191.

      1998 - Liu, K., C.J. Pigram, L. Paterson and C.G.St.C. Kendall, Computer simulation of a Cainozoic carbonate platform, Marion Plateau, north-east Australia. In G. F. Camoin and P. J. Davies (Eds) Reef and Carbonate Platforms in the Pacific and Indian Oceans. International Association of Sedimentologists Special Publication No. 25, pp.145-161.

      1998 - Perlmutter M. A., B.J. Radovich, M. D. Matthews and C,.G.St.C. Kendall, The impact of high-frequency sedimentation cycles on stratigraphic interpretation,  In F.M. Gradstein, K.O. Sandvick and N.J. Milton,. (Eds.), Sequence Stratigraphy – Concepts and Applications, Norwegian Petroleum Society Special Publication No 8, pp 141-170, Elsevier Science B.V. Amsterdam

      1998 - Alsharhan A. S, K.W. Glennie, G.L.Whittle and C.G.St.C.Kendal (Eds.), Quaternary Deserts and Climatic Change, Proceedings of the International Conference on Quaternary Deserts and Climatic change/ Al Ain/ United Arab Emirates/ 9-11 December 1995, A.A. Balkema Publishers, pp 621.

      1998 - Kendall, Christopher.G.St.C. and Animikh Sen,  Use of Sedimentary simulations for dating sequence boundaries and measuring the size of eustatic sea level changes: an example from the Neogene of the Bahamas: In Harff, J., Lemke, W., Stattegger, K. (Eds.), Computerized Modeling of Sedimentary Systems: Springer Verlag : Berlin, ISBN 3-540-64109-2, p 291-306.

      1998-  Kendall, C.G.St.C. A.S. Alsharhan and G.L.Whittle, The flood re-charge sabkha model supported by recent inversions of anhydrite to gypsum in the UAE Sabkhas, In A. S. Alsharhan, K.W. Glennie, G.L.Whittle  and C.G.St.C.Kendall eds, Quaternary Deserts and Climatic Change, Proceedings of the International Conference on Quaternary Deserts and Climatic change/ Al Ain/ United Arab Emirates/ 9-11 December 1995, A.A. Balkema Publishers, p 29-43.

      1998 Kendall, C.G.St.C. A.S. Alsharhan and G.L.Whittle, Petrography of Holocene beachrock and hardgrounds, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates, In A. S. Alsharhan, K.W. Glennie, G.L.Whittle  and C.G.St.C.Kendall eds, Quaternary Deserts and Climatic Change, Proceedings of the International Conference on Quaternary Deserts and Climatic change/ Al Ain/ United Arab Emirates/ 9-11 December 1995, A.A. Balkema Publishers, p 57-70.

      1997 Csato Istvan, Christopher G. St. C. Kendall, Alan E. M. Nairn and Gerald R. Baum, Sequence Stratigraphic Interpretations in the Southern Dead Sea Basin, Israel, Geol Soc Am.Bulletin,v 108, 1485-1501.

      1996 Kendall Christopher G St C, William E. Full, and Gregory Whittle: Seismic Expression of Carbonate Reservoir Systems, In G.V.Chilingarian, H.H. Rieke and S.J.Mazzulloeds., Carbonate Rervoir Characterization, part II, Chapter 2: p59-103.

      1996 Hellmann,Douglas R. , Mitchell L. Patterson, Robert L. Cannon Philip D. Moore, and Christopher G. St. C. Kendall; Tools for Visual and Numerical Data Entry, Software - Practice and Experience.v.26, n5, p.531-544.

      1995 Kendall, Christopher G. St. C., Gregory L. Whittle, Craig Fulthorpe, Phil Moore, T.Don Hickey, Robert Cannon and Douglas Hellmann, Geometric Responses in Neogene Sediments of Offshore New Zealand: Simulated as Products of Changes in Depositional Base Level Driven by Eustasy and/or Tectonics, In B. U. Haq, ed., Sequence Stratigraphy and Depositional Response to Eustatic, Tectonic and Climatic forcing; Kluwer Academic Publishers, p.113-136.

      1995 Kendall, Christopher G. St. C., Robert Ehrlich, and Phillip A. Levine, The Enigma of Third Order Sea Level Cycles: a Cosmic Connection? In B. U. Haq, ed., Sequence Stratigraphy and Depositional Response to Eustatic, Tectonic and Climatic forcing; Kluwer Academic Publishers, p.367-376.

      1994 Gregor P. Eberli, Christopher G. St. C. Kendall, Phil Moore, Gregory L. Whittle, and Robert Cannon, Testing a Seismic Interpretation of Great Bahama Bank with a Computer Simulation, AAPG Bulletin, V. 78, No. 6, p. 981-1004.

      1994 Saidi A. Hassani, and Christopher G. St. C. Kendall, Sedimentology and Alkaline Geochemistry of Rift Lake Manyara, Northern Tanzania, East Africa: An Analogue to Lacustrine Fill in Some Early Mesozoic Lakes of South East USA, Southeastern Geology, V. 34, No. 3, p. 129-137.

      1994 Christopher G. St. C. Kendall, James L. Sadd, and Abdulrahman Alsharhan, Holocene Marine Cement on Beachrocks of the Abu Dhabi Coastline (UAE); Analogs for Cement Fabrics in Ancient Limestones, Carbonates and Evaporites, V. 9, No. 2, p. 119-131.

      1994 Abdulrahman. S. Alsharhan and Christopher G.St.C. Kendall, Depositional setting of the Upper Jurassic Hith Anhydrite of the Arabian Gulf: an analogue to Holocene evaporites of the United Arab Emirates and Lake MacLeod of Western Australia: American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, v. 78, p. 1075-1096.

      Abstracts and Unreferred Publications
      Books
      Book Reviews
      Papers Presented At Professional Meetings
      Seminars
      Referred Publications
      Unpublished Reports


      Specialties


      Courses taught at USC

      Geol 101 - Introduction to the Earth (4) Origin and nature of the earth with emphasis on internal processes and phenomenon such as earthquakes, volcanoes, and mountain building; surfaces processes, including landform evolution. Three lectures and three laboratory hours each week.

      Geol 325 - Stratigraphy & Sedimentary Basins (4) (Prereq: Geol 202 or consent of instructor). Overview of sedimentary basins, sediment transport, sedimentation, depositional environments, stratigraphy, seismic stratigraphy, eustacy, and sedimentary petrology. Includes laboratory and recitation. Required field trips. Taught alternate years.

      Geol/MSCI 550 - Sedimentary Simulations and Sequence Stratigraphy (4) (Prereq: Geol 301 or consent of instructor). Problems of sequence stratigraphy resolved with graphic computer simulations. Sedimentary fill of basins by carbonates and/or clastics tracked as a function of rate of sediment accumulation, tectonic behavior and sea level. Includes laboratory.

      Geol/MSCI 553 - Marine Sediments (3) (Prereq: Geol 516 or consent of instructor) Marine sedimentary environments; physical/biological factors which control the formation and distribution of modern marine sediments.

      Geol/MSCI 716 - Eustasy and Global Variations in Sequence Stratigraphy (3) Relationship of sequence stratigraphy to sea level variations, tectonics and sedimentation. Construction and analyses of paleogeographic maps, regional cross-sections, and chronostratigraphic charts.

      Geol 745 - Petroleum Geology (3) An introduction to exploring for oil and natural gas; concentration on specific regions with energy resources.

      Geol 751 - Carbonate Petrology (3) Detailed analysis of the processes and products of carbonate sedimentation, diagenesis, and lithification, with special emphasis upon the role of organisms in forming carbonate sediments and sedimentary rocks. Three lecture hours per week with occasional field trips.

      Geol 764 - Seismic Reflection Interpretation (3) the interpretation of regional stratigraphy and structure using seismic sections. Recognition of stratigraphic sequences, sedimentary facies, and extensional and compressional structures. Application to hydrocarbon exploration.

      Geol 790 - Dir Individual Studies

      Geol 799 - Thesis Preparation

      Geol 818 - Seminar In Geophysics (3) - Seminar in 3-D Seismic Reflection Interpretation: the interpretation of regional stratigraphy and structure using 3-D seismic sections. Recognition of stratigraphic sequences, sedimentary facies, and extensional and compressional structures. Application to hydrocarbon exploration.

      Geol 899 - Dissertation Preparation

      Teaching Assignments at USC
      Previous Teaching Assignments


      Miscellaneous Information



      Index to Curriculum Vitae
      Abstracts and Unreferred Publications MSc Students (Graduated)
      Advisor to Fencing Club Past Students
      Birthplace Phd Students (Current)
      Books Phd Students (Graduated)
      Book Reviews Previous Teaching Assignments
      Citizenship Professional Activities and Public Service
      Computer Simulation of Basin Sedimentation Recent Publications 
      Courses offered at USC Referred Publications
      Current and Past Students Research Areas
      Date and Place of Birth Research Supervision (Visiting Faculty, Current and Past Students)
      Department of Geological Sciences Seminars 
      Department of Marine Sciences Societies (Professional and Learned)
      Education Honors Specialties 
      Grants StratMod Group
      Employment History Students
      Facilities (More complete Listing) Teaching Assignments at USC 
      Honors and Awards  Technical Facilities
      List of Papers Presented At Professional Meetings  Undergraduate Supervision
      University Committees etc.



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      Maintained by C. G. St.C. Kendall (kendall@sc.edu  , Tel 803 978-7523).   Last updated 7th June, 2008

       

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