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Empirical Measures


This section is devoted to various empirical measures of specific concepts in judicial behavior. Whenever possible a citation is included so that developers of the measures are given proper credit in future research. Should other individuals have measures that they wish included on this page, please contact Dr. Kirk Randazzo (

Measures of Ideology

  1. Martin-Quinn Scores for U.S. Supreme Court Justices

Citation: Martin, Andrew D. and Kevin M. Quinn. 2002. "Dynamic Ideal Point Estimation via Markov Chain Monte Carlo for the U.S. Supreme Court, 1953-1999." Political Analysis 10(2): 134-153.


  1. Segal-Cover Scores for U.S. Supreme Court Justices

Citation: Segal, Jeffrey A. and Albert Cover. 1989. "Ideological Values and the Votes of Supreme Court Justices." American Political Science Review 83 (June): 557-565.


  1. Giles, Hettinger, and Peppers Scores for U.S. Courts of Appeals Judges

Citation: Giles, Micheal W., Virginia A. Hettinger, and Todd C. Peppers 2001. "Picking Federal Judges: A Note on Policy and Partisan Selection Agendas." Political Research Quarterly 54 (September): 623-641.

Click here to download the GHP Scores (in STATA format)

Updated September, 2010

Click here to download the GHP Codebook (in pdf format)


Measures of Salience

  1. Epstein and Segal NY Times Measure

Citation: Epstein, Lee and Jeffrey A. Segal. 2000. "Measuring Issue Salience." American Journal of Political Science 44(1): 66-83.